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Food and Diets

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Introduction

Ch. 10 Food and Diets [?????] (Notes) HK people's diet (lunch or dinner at foodshop) --> too much salt, fats (causes coronary heart disease), energy/sugar (snack eg. soft drink/chocolates), food additives (eg. artificial pigments); NOT enough vitamin, dietary fibre. [??????????????, ???????(??????????)???/? (?? eg. ??/???)?????? (eg. ????); ??????(?????C)? ????] Mode of nutrition (human): heterotrophic nutrition (consume organic food); the organism: heterotroph [???????: ????(???????); ????????: ????? Food types [????]: 1. Carbohydrates[?????]: sources: starch (_______________), sugar (_____________) [??:??( ),?( )] - In gut: starch/sugar is digested to glucose --> absorb by blood (blood glucose) --> release energy by respiration in cells. [????, ??/???????? --> ????(??????) --> ???????????????] (In answering questions about digestion, we usually cannot directly state that we digest starch into glucose, but starch --> maltose-->glucose. But in this question, we only consider the general results of digestion, therefore we stated that starch has been digested into glucose. In fact, this already includes many processes.) [????????, ??????????????????, ????-->???-->???, ?????? ????????, ?????????????, ??????????/???] - Excess[??]: stored as glycogen in liver & muscles, still excess, it is converted to fat and store under skin [???????????; ???, ??????????] 2. Fats[??]: energy-rich; usually stored under skin (forming subcutaneous fat) or around internal organs (original function for absorbing shock, but excess of it causes diseases. [????; ???????(??????)??? ???? ...read more.

Middle

It becomes hard due to water absorption from the faeces. [???????????,????????] - (????: the function of dietary fibre is to prevent constipation [????????????]) - source[??]: obtained from fruits and vegetables [????????] 7. Water [??]: acts as solvent, transport medium, cooling agent (evaporation of sweat to keep cool), component of fluids (eg. digestive juices, tears) [???????????????????????(??: ???????)???, eg. ??????,?]? Balanced diet [????]: enough (but not excess) following substances [??(??????)????]: - energy-rich food (eg. carbohydrate, fats ) [????? ( [????????])] - body-building substance (eg. protein ) [???????(???)] - substance to maintain health (eg. vitamins, minerals & dietary fibre) [???????(??:????????????)] Factors affecting food/energy requirement [?? ??/?? ?????]: - age: young child: higher energy requirement: because higher metabolism (require more carbohydrate to provide energy); [??: ?????: ???????????????????(????????)] more protein: should build new cells/tissues for growth. [?????: ?????/??, ????] more calcium & vitamin D: building bones and teeth. [????????D: ??????] more iron: produce more blood to meet the higher requirement during growth. [????: ????????????] - sex [??]: male require more energy than that of female due to his higher metabolic rate [??????????, ??????????]? - occupation & daily activities [?????????] - special condition [????]: pregnant woman, breast-feeding woman [?????????]: require more energy for the growth of embryo/baby [???????/??, ?????/???????] (??????????????????, ???: "to provide more calcium, for the growth of bones of the embryo" [??????, ?????????]; ? ...read more.

Conclusion

are suitable for storage due to their insolubility. [???????, ?????????; ??(????)??????????????????; ???? (???)??? (???), ????????, ?????????]? 6. Vegetarian diet is not suitable for children and teenagers. They are actively growing and some essential amino acids may not be provided in sufficient amount. [????????????????????, ??????????, ????????????????????????????]? 7. Diet in cool area contains lots of fats, because: (a) fats can release much more energy (double) than that of carbohydrates and proteins. This can compensate for the great heat loss. (b) excess fats is stored under skin for insulation/ to reduce heat loss. ??????????, ???????????, ?? (a) ????????????????????(??), ?????????????; (b) ??????????????, ????, ????????? 8. Besides the skin to produce vitamin D under sunlight/UV ray, the bacteria in the large intestine can also produce vitamin K. Therefore not to say that human cannot produce vitamin. [??????????????D??, ?????(????)??????????K?????????????????]? 9. Patient with night-blindness cannot see things clearly in dim light (NOT at night/without light/dark condition). If there is really no light, nobody can "see" things. [????????????????????; (??: ????????); ???????????????]? (???????????) 10. Balanced diet includes correct amount and type of food in correct ratio (i.e. not too much/little)(NOT accept: take in all type of food in a diet). [??????????????????????? (???????) (???: ?????????)] (???: ???????????????[type of food], ??????????[suitable amount of food substances]; ??????????[amount of energy])? 11. Eat more sugar will probably cause tooth decay, NOT diabetes. [??????????, ??? "?????"]? ?? ?? ?? ?? P. 1 of 4 Ch10 Notes ...read more.

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