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Option A: Human Nutrition and Health Study

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Independent Study Unit: Option A- Human Nutrition and Health Submitted By: Submitted To: Submitted On: November 24, 2008. Option A: Human Nutrition and Health 1) Nutrients are chemical substances, found in foods, which are utilized in the human body. 2) Minerals, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and vitamins are essential nutrients in the human diet. Specifically, amino acids, fatty acids, and water are essential. 3) Non- essential amino acids are synthesized from other simpler nitrogen compounds. For instance, tyrosine, a non- essential amino acid, is synthesized from phenylalanine, an essential amino acid. 4) Protein deficiency malnutrition predominantly causes stunting, wasting, and general developmental disabilities. Other symptoms include: distended abdomen; alternating sections of light and dark hair; & dermatitis. 5) Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited disorder which increases the amount of phenylalanine (an amino acid) in the blood to harmful levels. Effects of untreated PKU may include mental retardation, behavioral issues, seizures, delayed development, movement disorders, a musty odor, lighter skin and hair, and skin disorders such as eczema. Mild cases may not require treatment with a special diet. The main treatment for PKU consists of permanently reducing the amount of protein in the diet. For few people, medicine may help reduce phenylalanine blood levels when used with a PKU diet. ...read more.


Trial subjects who ingested between 10 and 70mg remained healthy. Another procedure utilized to determine essential ascorbic acid intake was preformed on guinea pigs, as they, similarly to humans, cannot synthesize this vitamin. Concentrations in blood plasma and urine were monitored and collagen in skin and bone were evaluated. 10) Typically, the recommended adult dosage of ascorbic acid it 30- 60mg per day. This level is higher than necessary in order to maintain a safety margin. This is the recommended dosage in order to prevent scurvy. 11) There are few dietary sources of vitamin D. Oily fishes including herring, mackerel, sardines, and tuna are rich sources. Eggs and liver also contain low levels of vitamin D. Margarine and milk are artificially fortified with vitamin D. 12) Fibre is important in a balanced diet for three predominant reasons: a. It aids your digestive system in processing food and absorbing nutrients. b. It decreases blood cholesterol. c. It maintains blood sugar levels and increases the bulk in the stomach, which in turn controls appetite. d. It may reduce risk of diseases of the large intestine including appendicitis, cancer, and haemorrhoids. e. It may decelerate the rate of sugar absorption, thereby preventing or treating diabetes. ...read more.


Albertine Lumbricus Terrestris Dissection Assignment November 22, 2008. Holly Burkoski A. Organ Functions: i. Anus: opening of the digestive tract at the distal end of the intestine ii. Crop: thin-walled structure used to store food before it is passes into the muscular grinding gizzard iii. Esophagus: carries food ladened soil between the pharynx and crop iv. Intestine: primary digestive organ of the earthworm; located posterior to the gizzard v. Gizzard: muscular, grinding organ just posterior to the crop vi. Mouth: opening at the anterior end allowing the intake of food consisting of particles of decaying organic matter and inorganic substances vii. Pharynx: neuromuscular organ, responsible for ingestion of food. allows the worm to draw soil, containing nutrients, into the digestive tract; anterior portion of the pharynx is known as the buccal cavity and is continuous from the mouth viii. Pharyngeal muscle: rhythmically contracts and relaxes in order to transport food from the mouth of the pharynx to the crop B. In which organ would you expect the contents to be more ground up? The gizzard is responsible for the muscular grinding of the ingested matter. Thus, the contents are anticipated to be deteriorated within this organ. Logically, the matter located at the end of the intestine (entering the anus) is predicted to be the most deteriorated, or ground up, since it has completely travelled the digestive system. ...read more.

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