• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Vaccination. The principle behind which vaccines work is that it contain germs that are weak or dead thus they dont make a person sick. Having these germs in our system triggers our immune system

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

When foreign substances (antigens) such as germs enter out body, our immune system recognizes them. In return they "produce the right antibody to fight the antigens." (Kelly) Vaccination is "a disease-causing agent that is given to a person in a killed or weakened form (or in the form of proteins genetically engineered to look like a disease-causing agent), in order to stimulate the production of antibodies to fight off the disease."(Gazis-Sax) It protects us from specific diseases and "boosts [our] body's own defense system" (What is vaccination...) which is also known as the immune system. The principle behind which vaccines work is that it contain germs that are weak or dead thus they don't make a person sick. ...read more.

Middle

These cells present in vaccines "do not respond immediately when [they] first encounter an antigen" (Memory Cell) but rather they initiate a secondary response when the same antigen attacks for the second time. This way the immune system is more effective and more rapid. Primary immune response is our 1st line of defense when our immune systems produces antibodies by b-lymphotyes cloning themselves through meiosis and are specific to the antigen in our bloodstream. Vaccines aim to produce a weakened strand of a certain antigen into our body to create primary immune defense. The other way of obtaining antibodies is through artificial means known as the passive immunity. ...read more.

Conclusion

There are various infectious diseases that have been eliminated in various countries through the process of routinely vaccinating the children. For instance, in "the 1960s, many people witnessed first-hand, the terrible effects of rubella, commonly known as German measles. During an epidemic between 1964 and 1965, about 20,000 infants were born with deafness, blindness, heart disease, mental retardation, and other birth defects because the rubella virus infected their pregnant mothers. Today, thanks to nearly universal use of an effective vaccine, the rubella virus poses virtually no threat to the children of expectant mothers." (Satcher) Furthermore, vaccines not only save lives by preventing the infectious disease agents, they also save money. There are health organizations that help subsidize the cost of vaccines and in addition getting a vaccine is far less cheaper than treating the treatment itself if it occurs. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. Cardiovascular System revision questions and answers.

    supply food for cells, and nitrogenous wastes to be excreted by the kidneys. In general, what steps result in a blood clot? First a blood vessel in the body needs to be damaged. From here platelets clump at the site of the puncture and partially seal the leak, releasing a

  2. PERMEABILIDAD DE LA MEMBRANA CELULAR EN MATERIALES BIOLGICOS

    Promedio de diferencia de peso (Pf-Pi/5) Agua destilada (control) M1 = 0,87 M1 =0,99 M1 = 0,12 Mp= 0.634 M2 = 0,90 M2 = 1,32 M2 = 0.42 M3 =1,11 M3 =1,33 M3 =0.22 M4 =1,19 M4 =1,37 M4 =0.18 M5 =1,20 M5 =1,55 M5 =0.35 Sal al 0,12 % 0,2M M1 = 0,85 M1 = 0,74 M1 =

  1. The Nervous System

    Stage 3: Potassium channels open after a short delay. Potassium ions diffuse out of the neuron down the concentration gradient through the opened channels. The exit of positively charged potassium ions cause the inside of the neuron to develop a net negative charge again compared with the outside - the potential across the membrane is restored, aka repolarization.

  2. Biology Extended Essay 2009

    It might have some similarity in its nutritional value but there will be underlying health issues arise due to the preservatives and additives. 2. Orange juice and Its Characteristics Orange is a highly acidic fruit compared to other fruits of similar characteristics. Its pH level, on average is approximately 2.4.

  1. Bipedalism vs. Quadrapedalism

    Place a book in both of the tester's hands which weighs 5 lbs. while one person stands on two feet and the other person is on their hands and feet. The person on fours will hold the book in their dominant hand while the other one stays on the ground.

  2. Monoclonal Antibodies

    In order to understand the actual functionality of these specific antibodies, it is useful to explain the method applied in producing them. K�hler and Milstein found, in 1975 a way to combine the unlimited growth potential of the myeloma cells with the predetermined antibody specificity of normal immune spleen cells.

  1. Comparing the Sexy Sons Hypothesis and the Pathogen Avoidance Models Effects on Sexual Selection

    Mice release certain proteins in their urine call MUPs (Major Urinary Proteins) as social pheromones for attracting females. This process has been studied for a long time with more and more evidence confirming its reliability as a measure of attractiveness (Kumar, et al.

  2. Sleep is a normal part of human life. Investigate the neurobiological basis of normal ...

    When daily sleep time is less than an individual?s needs, a ?sleep debt? develops. Even relatively modest daily reductions in sleep time (one hour) can accumulate across days to cause a sleep debt. If the debt becomes too great, it can lead to sleepiness problems.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work