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Examining the Solubility of Substances in Double Replacement Reactions (Final)

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Introduction

IB2 Chemistry HL 23/09/10 Solubility of Substances in Double Replacement Reactions Aim: The aim of this investigation is to perform various double replacement reactions with known substances and record the qualitative observations. Furthermore, writing the equations for the reactions and apply the rules of solubility to see if every color change equals to a precipitate. It is predicted that a solid will form only when there is a change in color. Plan: Materials: * ZnSO4 solution * BaCl2 solution * AgNO3 solution * Pb(NO3)2 solution * NaCl solution * NaBr solution * CuSO4 solution * NaI solution * Na2SO3 solution * Na2SO4 solution * Pipette * 45 test tubes * Test tube rack Procedure: Mix one drop of each of two solutions in different test tubes and recorded observations. Safety: During the experiment a protective coat and goggle must be worn to prevent contact with the chemicals. Results: This is a table showing the observations while mixing the solutions. Analysis: ZnSO4 - BaCl2 : Overall equation: ZnSO4(aq) + BaCl2(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + BaSO4(s) Net Ionic Equation: Ba2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) BaSO4(s) ZnSO4 - AgNO3 : Overall equation: ZnSO4(aq) ...read more.

Middle

+ SO42-(aq) Ag2SO4(s) Precipitate form but no change observed. Pb(NO3)2 - NaCl : Overall equation: Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaCl(aq) PbCl2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) Net Ionic Equation: Pb2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) PbCl2(s) Pb(NO3)2 - NaBr : Overall equation: Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaBr(aq) PbBr2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) Net Ionic Equation: Pb2+(aq) + 2Br-(aq) PbBr2(s) Pb(NO3)2 - CuSO4 : Overall equation: Pb(NO3)2(aq) + CuSO4(aq) PbSO4(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) Net Ionic Equation: Pb2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) PbSO4(s) Pb(NO3)2 - NaI : Overall equation: Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaI(aq) PbI2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) Net Ionic Equation: Pb2+(aq) + 2I-(aq) PbI2(s) Pb(NO3)2 - Na2SO3 : Overall equation: Pb(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO3(aq) PbSO3(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) Net Ionic Equation: Pb2+(aq) + SO32-(aq) PbSO3(s) Pb(NO3)2 - Na2SO4 : Overall equation: Pb(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) PbSO4(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) Net Ionic Equation: Pb2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) PbSO4(s) NaCl - NaBr : Overall equation: NaCl(aq) + NaBr(aq) NaCl(aq) + NaBr(aq) Net Ionic Equation: No reaction NaCl - CuSO4 : Overall equation: 2NaCl(aq) + CuSO4(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + CuCl2(aq) Net Ionic Equation: No reaction NaCl - NaI : Overall equation: NaCl(aq) + NaI(aq) NaCl(aq) + NaI(aq) Net Ionic Equation: No reaction NaCl - Na2SO3 : Overall equation: NaCl(aq) + Na2SO3(aq) NaCl(aq) + Na2SO3(aq) Net Ionic Equation: No reaction NaCl - Na2SO4 : Overall equation: NaCl(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) NaCl(aq) ...read more.

Conclusion

This shows that the chemical properties of the ions are the most important factor at determining solubility. The reaction between copper sulfate and sodium iodide is a good example of how the orbits of the electrons play a big role at determining the result. Evaluation: There is a risk of systematic error (in this case mainly errors caused by the experimenter) that can't be determined. First of all there wasn't enough time in hand to perform all 45 reactions calmly in a well-organized method. It wasn't possible to put labels on the test tubes indicating the compounds in it; cancelling the change of observing the changes after a longer period of time. Some reactions may perform very slowly only allowing observations of simultaneous changes. The time limit also prevented retests, which would eliminate systematic errors. Although the lack of time and crowded working station no obscure results were obtained. However, for the fairness of the experiment at least two more retests are needed. Also the solutions in each test tube should be observed one more time after a few minutes considering the chance of a slow reaction. Therefore a good method and time is very important in experiments like these where many combinations of reactions must be performed. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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