• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Examining the Solubility of Substances in Double Replacement Reactions (Final)

Extracts from this document...


IB2 Chemistry HL 23/09/10 Solubility of Substances in Double Replacement Reactions Aim: The aim of this investigation is to perform various double replacement reactions with known substances and record the qualitative observations. Furthermore, writing the equations for the reactions and apply the rules of solubility to see if every color change equals to a precipitate. It is predicted that a solid will form only when there is a change in color. Plan: Materials: * ZnSO4 solution * BaCl2 solution * AgNO3 solution * Pb(NO3)2 solution * NaCl solution * NaBr solution * CuSO4 solution * NaI solution * Na2SO3 solution * Na2SO4 solution * Pipette * 45 test tubes * Test tube rack Procedure: Mix one drop of each of two solutions in different test tubes and recorded observations. Safety: During the experiment a protective coat and goggle must be worn to prevent contact with the chemicals. Results: This is a table showing the observations while mixing the solutions. Analysis: ZnSO4 - BaCl2 : Overall equation: ZnSO4(aq) + BaCl2(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + BaSO4(s) Net Ionic Equation: Ba2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) BaSO4(s) ZnSO4 - AgNO3 : Overall equation: ZnSO4(aq) ...read more.


+ SO42-(aq) Ag2SO4(s) Precipitate form but no change observed. Pb(NO3)2 - NaCl : Overall equation: Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaCl(aq) PbCl2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) Net Ionic Equation: Pb2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) PbCl2(s) Pb(NO3)2 - NaBr : Overall equation: Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaBr(aq) PbBr2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) Net Ionic Equation: Pb2+(aq) + 2Br-(aq) PbBr2(s) Pb(NO3)2 - CuSO4 : Overall equation: Pb(NO3)2(aq) + CuSO4(aq) PbSO4(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) Net Ionic Equation: Pb2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) PbSO4(s) Pb(NO3)2 - NaI : Overall equation: Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaI(aq) PbI2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) Net Ionic Equation: Pb2+(aq) + 2I-(aq) PbI2(s) Pb(NO3)2 - Na2SO3 : Overall equation: Pb(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO3(aq) PbSO3(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) Net Ionic Equation: Pb2+(aq) + SO32-(aq) PbSO3(s) Pb(NO3)2 - Na2SO4 : Overall equation: Pb(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) PbSO4(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) Net Ionic Equation: Pb2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) PbSO4(s) NaCl - NaBr : Overall equation: NaCl(aq) + NaBr(aq) NaCl(aq) + NaBr(aq) Net Ionic Equation: No reaction NaCl - CuSO4 : Overall equation: 2NaCl(aq) + CuSO4(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + CuCl2(aq) Net Ionic Equation: No reaction NaCl - NaI : Overall equation: NaCl(aq) + NaI(aq) NaCl(aq) + NaI(aq) Net Ionic Equation: No reaction NaCl - Na2SO3 : Overall equation: NaCl(aq) + Na2SO3(aq) NaCl(aq) + Na2SO3(aq) Net Ionic Equation: No reaction NaCl - Na2SO4 : Overall equation: NaCl(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) NaCl(aq) ...read more.


This shows that the chemical properties of the ions are the most important factor at determining solubility. The reaction between copper sulfate and sodium iodide is a good example of how the orbits of the electrons play a big role at determining the result. Evaluation: There is a risk of systematic error (in this case mainly errors caused by the experimenter) that can't be determined. First of all there wasn't enough time in hand to perform all 45 reactions calmly in a well-organized method. It wasn't possible to put labels on the test tubes indicating the compounds in it; cancelling the change of observing the changes after a longer period of time. Some reactions may perform very slowly only allowing observations of simultaneous changes. The time limit also prevented retests, which would eliminate systematic errors. Although the lack of time and crowded working station no obscure results were obtained. However, for the fairness of the experiment at least two more retests are needed. Also the solutions in each test tube should be observed one more time after a few minutes considering the chance of a slow reaction. Therefore a good method and time is very important in experiments like these where many combinations of reactions must be performed. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. Chemistry Extended Essay - Viscosity of Xanthan Gum solutions

    Average time(s) for burette to empty Standard deviation Solution 1 0% 25.6 3.2 Solution 2 0.2% 26.9 2.3 Solution 3 0.4% 28.0 3.4 Solution 4 0.6% 31.2 2.6 Solution 5 0.8% 37.8 3.8 +/- .5 s for time values +/- .002% for xanthan gum concentrations 5.2 Comparison of mass change

  2. Using Solubility Rules to Indentify Unknown Solutions

    of precipitate formed by the unknown solutions. Variables: Variables Identified Type of Variable Treatment Combination pairs of ionic solutions Independent Pairs of six different ionic solutions mixed in all possible combinations. Precipitate or no precipitate Dependent All the combinations listed will be used to deduce which combination pairs form a precipitation reaction Volume of each solution Controlled

  1. Making Insoluble Salts by Precipitation. Aim: to observe what happens when two solutions ...

    Clear colourless NaSO4 Na2CO3 Clear colourless Clear colourless NaOH Clear colourless Nacl Clear colourless NaBr2 Clear colourless NaI2 Iron (II) (+2) Clear orange FeSO4 FeCO3 Orange-brown precipitate Dark brown precipitate Fe(OH)2 Clear, slightly yellow, no precipitate FeCl2 Orange, no precipitate FeBr2 Dark yellow clear FeI2 Magnesium (+2)

  2. Group 4

    Crash tests showed that for an airbag to be useful as a protective device, the bag must deploy and inflate within 40 milliseconds. The system must also be able to detect the difference between a severe crash and a minor fender-bender.

  1. Reactants Lab. In this experiment we discovered three types of chemical reactions, Single ...

    sodium acetate (aq) C2H3NaO2 (aq) magnesium (s) Mg (s) sodium hydroxide (aq) NaOH (aq) cobalt chloride (aq) CoCl2 (aq) List of Chemical Reactions Fig. 1.2 Reactant 1 Reactant 2 sulphuric acid (aq) barium hydroxide (aq) hydrochloric acid (aq) magnesium hydroxide (aq) calcium (s) water (l) hydrochloric acid (aq) sodium acetate (aq zinc (s)

  2. Investigation on solubility of different chemicals

    (Spatula number is the number of spatulas of the chemical placed in the water). By this step, we will be at spatula number 1. Then we will proceed to repeat this routine (adding a spatula of the chemical and placing it in the water and agitating the solution)


    A little aqueous silver nitrate was added and then the observations were recorded 3. The test tube was placed in a sunny place, and left there for about 5 minutes and then it was observed again 4. Step 1, 2 and 3 were repeated using aqueous potassium bromide, then aqueous potassium iodide instead of sodium chloride ?Data Collection?


    sulphate was weighed into a 400ml beaker. A few drops of 2M H2SO4 and 30ml of water were added. A light green solution was formed. The Di-ammonium iron (II) sulphate was slightly oxidized by H2SO4. 5.0g of oxalic acid AnalaR solution in 30ml of water was added to the green solution. The solution changes to yellow solution.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work