• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Study of Agricultural Systems

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

THE GREAT PLAINS OF THE UNITED STATES: EXTENSIVE COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE ==> Introduction: Extensive commercial agriculture is where the amount of labour is still limited but the input of capital may be high. The farms are large in comparison to the money injected into them or the labour used. The cereal and grain productions of the Great Plains in the USA are a good example of extensive agriculture, where often only a few farm workers are responsible for thousands of acres of farmland. The yields per hectare are often low while the output per farmer is high. These cereals and grains, produced on a large scale, provide a staple diet for the population. ==> Case study: Extensive commercial farming is carried out in the Great Plains of the USA. This system of farming makes up for relatively low crop yields by increasing the scale of production. Vast holdings are cultivated and improvements in technology for irrigation, different strains of cereals, machinery and agrochemicals has seen output soar, causing large surpluses. Extensive commercial agriculture is quite an effective agricultural system. Inputs include temperature, precipitation, wind, altitude, slope, and soils because these are all factors which may alter the level of output. As well, the input of capital, farm size, technology, governmental aid and support, and markets are contributing factors. The labourer's age, knowledge and experience also plays an immense role in agriculture. Productivity per hectare is low but per farm worker is high. In the Great Plains, the physical inputs are favourable for cereal and grain production because the temperature is not extreme, the level of precipitation is adequate and the winds are not too tough. The conditions of the area allow a better production rate as compared to those with extreme climates. The rural Plains has lost a third of its population since 1920. Several hundred thousand square miles of the Great Plains have fewer than six persons per square mile. ...read more.

Middle

Yet it is not a system of great effectiveness. Nomadic pastoralism (pastoral farming) is less favourable to arable farming. If the grazed area has too many animals on it, its carrying capacity is exceeded or the quality of the soil and grass is not maintained, causing erosion and desertification. Livestock numbers increased can lead to overgrazing, which then results in the land being stripped of its protective grass cover, where the vegetation cannot re-establish itself, followed by soil exposed to rain and wind, finally left in desertification. Therefore, the livestock numbers is an important factor and the large amount of land in Chad must be maintained well and protected, or else productivity will only decrease. Environmental factors such as coldness vs. warmth, and dryness vs. wetness, can alter the production rate of pastoral farming. In Chad, there is little rainfall and increased drought. There is also increased evaporation of water. Animals need water to live and the limited resource of water is a problem in countries such as Chad. In conclusion, extensive subsistence farming is not very effective because it only supports the local population, or perhaps just the farmer's own family. But with limited resources and capital plus extreme weather conditions in a country such as Chad, pastoral farming is the way to go. To increase efficiency, the labour force should be increased. Advantages for the labourers are that they may be employed and earn money. The value of labour in LEDCs is regarded to be less significant than in MEDCs, thus there can be benefit both ways: labourers receive a wage; the country's economy strengthens. Capital also needs to increase, but there may be problems as Chad is an LEDC and continues to need foreign aid in terms of its economy. THE NETHERLANDS: INTENSIVE COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE ==> Introduction: Intensive commercial agriculture is where the amount of capital is high but the input of labour is low. ...read more.

Conclusion

If the wages were high, then the country could not afford so many labourers. China is home to the large population in the world (1,313,973,713 people) of which 71.4% is in the working age group. These people often compete for employment and lack of labour is rarely a problem, if even at all. Although the physical input (precipitation, wind, temperature, soils) is not of the highest quality due to frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts), damaging floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, droughts, and land subsidence, the conditions in China is still acceptable for agriculture. Farms are abundant since 18.86% of its land is arable land. (Only 4.57% of Canada's land is arable!) The output is currently at the stability level, where the income from outputs equals cost of inputs. Looking at China's ongoing technological improvements and developments, it is a country that can work to reach greater profit. Increased capital is necessary in order to increase production. Currently, the input of labour is strong; the input of capital is lacking. Perhaps further developments in the country's economy will pave a way for bigger agricultural success. In conclusion, the effectiveness of intensive subsistence farming in China is sitting near the satisfactory level. However, the high amount of labour should be able to produce more output with the increase of capital. Climatic conditions of floods may somewhat limit farming in certain areas of the country, but it is not a severe problem overall. The cost of labour is not too high as compared to that in the United States; therefore, the large labour force can be kept. The labour input in intensive subsistence farming is huge when compared to the other three methods of farming, but keep in mind that it is because the others have such small labour inputs. This system can be seen as effective due to its small land usage, showing that China making use of their land as best they can. China needs to strive to improve its economy and place more capital in the agricultural industry. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Geography essays

  1. Desertification of Sahara and Gobi desert

    Because loss of genetic diversity threatens their continued survival, the National Zoo's Conservation and Research Center and other institutions around the world maintain breeding populations that serve as a source of animals for reintroduction in Mongolia, China, and Kazakhstan. Thanks to their effort nearly 400 horses now roam in re-introduction sites in Mongolia and China."

  2. Foreign Talent-Dilemma in Singapore. as we shall explain, illustrate and seek to convince in ...

    - Focus Group participants 42. We expect these fears and sentiments to increase if economic conditions continue to deteriorate. Measures that directly protect jobs for Singaporeans will only reduce our national competitiveness and ability to weather the storm. We need to be like athletes who build up stamina and skill from training and participation in competitions.

  1. Shanty Case Study

    There are differences in materials used for each shanty settlement, but the commonality of these shanties is that they are unsanitary, poor, and constructed out of any materials people can find. >>END OF STEP 2<< DO WE NEED THIS? Few health care services are available in shanty settlements.

  2. Geography FiledWork: Study of CBD

    Inner core Outer core Residential area Frame CONCLUSION AND EVALUATION In order to investigate the CBD of Hannover, two hypotheses were proposed to evaluate the extent to which Hannover conforms to a typical CBD. Firstly, we suggested that the height of buildings would decrease as we walked away from the center of the CBD.

  1. Geography Course Work

    Then dropping the cotton wool off the pole and measuring the time it takes to get to the ground, with a stopwatch. And measuring the distance it travelled with the measuring pole. However, although it was easy to do, it is the same reason for the problem with this experiment.

  2. Climate changes in Canada. What consequences derive from the climate change in Canada ...

    A 49% decrease of brooks was calculated by the year 2050 by the climate model. The brooks may migrate either northeasterly, away from central Canada towards the Quebec-Labrador region and westerly towards British Columbia. On the other hand, it is likely that walleye would expand throughout their present range, but

  1. Is the introduction of foreign talent in Singapore beneficial to Singaporeans?

    "Foreign labour policies might be tightened if political stress emerges in the future," says Chua Hak Bin, regional economist at Citigroup in Singapore. "Such a risk cannot be dismissed as foreigners could reach half of the total population." Is the introduction of foreign talent in Singapore beneficial to Singaporeans?

  2. Globalization Case Study

    population density map 6 the government is finding more and more difficulty in feeding the rising population. But in the centre of Haiti and its trouble is its capital, port-au-prince, which is caught between the international economy with its ports and the domestic problems Haiti faces at home.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work