Geography HL Essay: Examine the strategies used in the transfer of capital between core and peripheral areas. There are various strategies which are made use of when transferring capital between the core and peripheral areas. These are mainly loans and debt repayment, remittances, foreign direct investment and the repatriation of profits. Loans and debt repayment is used worldwide in which the developing countries collectively owe $2.3 trillion to foreign creditors. The advantages brought by such a transfer of capital between core and peripheral areas is the opportunity countries get to finance necessary resources in order to build up and develop themselves by improving their education and housing in Sub-Saharan Africa for example. The total money owed has however been cut due to the HIPC plan which reduced the 218$ billion owed to $180 billion. As a result of these loans and repayments, food, clothing, housing, medicines and medical care became cheaper and simultaneously, their quality improved since earlier times. This as a result makes it easier and better for LEDCs to afford such resources, benefiting their standard of living and development of their economy. The loans and debts still however need to be repaid, and as a result countries will need to pay interest on this and pay back the principal. Even bad loans will have to be repaid, and especially for LEDCs this can
Prague. The capital city of the Czech Republic, Prague, is situated in the very heart of Europe, on the river Vltava and is therefore a place that has been an intersection of continental merchant routes for many ages.
Jan Bellenghi Grade: 9a PRAGUE The capital city of the Czech Republic, Prague, is situated in the very heart of Europe, on the river Vltava and is therefore a place that has been an intersection of continental merchant routes for many ages. Prague was officially founded in the late 9th century by Prince Borivoj. It was during his reign the very famous Prague Castle was built. However, there are signs of other tribes settling in Prague many hundred years earlier than the Slavs. The first king ruling Prague was John of Luxembourg (Charles IV) from 1310 to 1346. Charles IV contributed significantly to the development of Prague when he founded the oldest university in central Europe, Charles University. He also invested into the residential area of Prague by the construction of public houses and adorning the area with numerous structures such as the Charles Bridge and the magnificent St. Vitus' Cathedral. Increasing Prague's size and population to 50,000 inhabitants and 8 km², he had made Prague the largest European city at the time. After Charles IV´ death in 1346, difficulties all over the country cropped up. Many uprisings and revolts lead by the peasants and the clergy were initiated in an attempt to overthrow the king and start reforms. The Czech Republic entered the age of depression. From the end of World War II (1945) to 1989,
Is China poised to become the world's number 1 superpower? A superpower is a state which has the ability to project its power on a worldwide scale to protect its interests, primarily through its military and economic strengths over other nations. Currently there is only one defined superpower in the world; the United States of America. However there is fierce debate over whether other rising powers such as China and India, and even some Trans National Corporations (TNCs) are poised to become superpowers in the near future, or are even superpowers already. More specifically there is debate over whether China's size and economy are enough to propel it to superpower status, or if it simply lacks the prowess that makes the USA such an influential state. In 2003, China launched its first human into space; only the third nation in history to do so. What is particularly striking about such an achievement is that it is debatably the first non-superpower state to do so. The USA is no doubt a superpower, and the Soviet Union was considered a superpower in its time. China however is on the verge, and subtle indicators such as the success of its space program could provide intuitive evidence for a case supporting its emergence as a superpower within the next few years. In terms of the hard facts, China has a booming economy; illustrated by a growth rate of 9% per year, as well as a
PART A: AIMS AND HYPOTHESIS Granville Island, located in False Creek under the south end of the Granville Street Bridge, is often regarded as an 'urban planning success story' because it is an area being analyzed and copied worldwide. Although Granville Island retains its old name, it is no longer an island but a peninsula, connected to the shore by Anderson Street. Once a derelict industrial park, it has since then been transformed to the thriving market and entertainment destination it is today, attracting both local residents as well as tourists from across the globe. The question "Is Granville Island a higher order central place?" is the focal point of this urban studies topic. The purpose of this mission is to discover what sort of goods and services are available on Granville Island and whether these goods are regarded as 'higher order'. Higher order goods and services are those which are infrequently purchased and require a larger threshold. Having a high order service implies there are low order services around it, but not vice versa. Lower level settlements are arranged within the sphere of influence of the highest order settlement. This is done so that the lower order settlements can be completely controlled by higher levels. I hypothesize that Granville Island is a higher order central place because: . It is a settlement which provides specialized goods and
As we all know we cannot rely on Oil much longer. It is no longer a reliable and sustainable energy source. This is why it is essential that we start looking for alternative energy sources. In the past, we have done very little to reduce our dependency on our limited resources. Therefore we need to switch to alternative resources that we know are unlimited. This needs to be done quickly, while there is still time to develop and refine alternative technologies. Some alternative resources include wind energy, solar power, hydro power and tidal power. Wind and solar power are both fast growing energies in the world. They are both renewable resources of energy. Solar power can be a very versatile source of energy. It can power almost anything including cars, houses, gardens, heating, satellites, etc.. However, most importantly it is a clean renewable energy source. Today, we are able to meet all our demands using solar energy. 1However, only 0.1% of our power energy actually comes from direct sunlight. Solar energy can be created by using mirror and reflective surfaces to concentrate solar radiation. The parabolic dish systems concentrate solar radiations to a certain point to create high temperatures. 2There is a dish in France, which is only used for scientific experiments but it can get as hot as 33,000 degrees Celsius. These temperatures are used to produce stem, drive
Development vs. Conservation This essay will focus on one water scheme in China, specifically the Xiaolangdi Dam. Located along the mainstem of the lower Yellow River (Map 1)1, the Xiaolangdi Dam was constructed during the period 1991 - 1997 with the aim to reduce the flood risk, decrease sediment deposition in downstream river channels of the Yellow River and is used to provide constant supplies of water for irrigation and electricity generation.2 The second largest dam in China, Xiaolangdi is just one of the hundreds of dams and water schemes in China that symbolizes their ability to use water to fuel development in terms of agricultural and industrial, and attempting to propel themselves into one of the world's superpowers. However, in hopes of increasing the amount of dams and water schemes to fuel development, there have been several negative consequences and impacts that have occurred due to major river alternations, and has led us to the statement:- "The over riding development needs of China far outweigh the negative consequences (unintended and intended) which result from major river alterations." To agree of disagree with this statement, the Xiaolangdi Dam will be researched in depth to examine the situation of development from a balanced viewpoint, and to come up with an argument that states that the Xiaolangdi Dam's development benefits only lasts in the short
'Major innovations in agriculture have always proved to be controversial(TM) With reference to recent changes in agriculture, evaluate the validity of this statement.
'Major innovations in agriculture have always proved to be controversial' With reference to recent changes in agriculture, evaluate the validity of this statement. * Before the WW2 the farmers used hands and horses to farms, and the fields were irregular and relatively small, few chemicals were used and yields were low by today's standards. * British farmers had to compete with cheap imports of grain, meat and dairy produce from Australia, New Zealand * The war, and particularly the sinking of so many merchant ships by German U-boats, brought about the realization that Britain had to produce more of its own food and become less reliant on imports. * Post-war periods witnessed by increasing application of science and technology farming to maximize yields and to increase profitability. * Sudden increase in production lead to production of 'butter mountains,' 'wine lakes' which led to down scaling production. * In China now meat consumption is rising by 10% per year. * Consumption of animal protein is about one-quarter of that in the developed world, and demand seems set to continue rising. * Biotechnologists, on the other hand, are confident that new technologies will be able to produce enough food for 10 billion people. Modern methods. * Crop rotation are used on smaller farms. But today many crops are grown on a large scale in a system of monoculture, this means
[The Suede Times] Impact of Foreign Talent Gautam Banerjee is the type of foreigner Singapore wants to attract. The Indian-born accountant left London after university in the early 1980s and moved to the city-state, where he became a citizen in 1990. Now the head of PwCAsia, he was appointed by the government to serve as a non-voting parliamentary member to promote the interests of Singapore's growing immigrant population. "We need to get overseas talent to sink roots here," he says. Singapore wants a lot more people like Mr Banerjee. Its birth rate, once one of world's highest, is flagging. Young, educated Singaporeans are emigrating to seek better-paying jobs or more freedom from restrictive rules at home. If present trends continue, the local population could begin to shrink by 2020. Singapore's leaders view the situation with alarm. A declining population would result in economic stagnation. Their solution is to admit many more foreigners with the goal of increasing the population to 6.5m from 4.5m in the next 20 years. The main focus: attracting skilled workers from China and India, the countries that provided the waves of immigrants who helped to turn Singapore from a 19th-century swamp into the financial centre it is now. If foreign-born permanent residents are included, Singapore has Asia's largest population of foreigners as a proportion of its residents.
Newton College Investigating the Quebrada Sachavacayoc River, a Tributary of the Tambopata River in Madre de Dios, Peru Tiziana Gelmi Candusso D-0448-014 2,500 words 2005 Map 1.5 Puerto Maldonado: a small urban area located in Madre de Dios. River Madre de Dios Puerto Maldonado, which has 28000 people in it River Tambopata Few main Roads Figure 1.1 Waiting for our Boat to arrive in Puerto Maldonado's Port Fig 1.2 Industries in Puerto Maldonado Extractive industry: Truck with tree trunks going to the city. This increases the surface run off, therefore increases the sediment in the rivers. Map 1.6 Tambopata, a piece of the inner Rainforest of Madre de Dios1 Location of the analyzed sites (see map 1.7) I will refer to the sites as Site A - F, these are the locations of each of these sites: Site A --> site on Quebrada Sachavacayoc River nearer to the Tambopata river Site B --> site on Quebrada Sachavacayoc River a bit further inside from the Tambopata river Site C --> Lake Sachavacayoc (middle of lake) Site D --> Lake Sachavacayoc (inlet) Site E --> Low Bridge of Trail (near platform) Site F --> High bridge of Trail (half way back to lodge) Map 1.7 Sketch Map of the location of sites Map 1.8 Location of Figures in Sketch map of the analyzed sites Figure 1.3 Precipitation Graph of Tambopata 2 The Tambopata Forest has a seasonal
INTRODUCTION Subject: The contrast of 2 cities of one million inhabitants: Oakland and Vienna. So the 3 aspects that the subject is asking to present are: -How did the cities grow over the last 25 years? -Why have they grown? And, -The problems these growths have created. I added at my own initiative another aspect which is: -Solutions for a better future. HOW DID VIENNA AND OAKLAND GROW So, how did Oakland and Vienna grow during the past 25 year is our first question. I'll be comparing the difference in growth of these 2 cities. The Second World War left great impacts on Vienna. More than 20% of the housing stock was partly or completely destroyed, almost 89'000 flats became inhabitant. In the urban area, more than 3'000 bombs destroyed almost all the city's infrastructure. The population of Vienna fell approximately by 15% and was of 1'322'000. This was caused by the emigration of more than 1000'000 Jews to the west in order to escape from the Nazi's. At the beginning the Viennese just wanted to solve the basic problems and get the city back to some degree of working order. Vienna managed very well the tasks of providing food, sheltering, rebuilding the city and repairing transportation because it was a very well organized city. I think that everybody knows that Vienna is famous for it's ancient and fascinating architecture. Well I can tell you that even