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International Baccalaureate: History

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  1. Discuss the successes and failures of Henry I as king of England

    The site of Rufus led him to success. Henry's speedy coronation sparked another succession crisis. Henry gained power with the help of a few select allies, for example the count of Meulan and Earl Henry of Warwick, same as the Bishop of London, who agreed to crown him, however immediately had difficulties holding onto power. The problem was the same as in 1088, when Rufus became king of England, some thought that England and Normandy should remain united and that duke Robert, the eldest son of the Conqueror, should rule both.

    • Word count: 1616
  2. The Benin and their right to compenstion for th etheft of their triabal art.

    Yet all of these lands, these creations, were not "theirs". The land was not something to be possessed. It all belonged to the "dead, the ancestors, and the cities themselves were an integral part of the life process" (Lessons in Africana Studies, pg. 154). The pureness of the people and their love for their land led to the creation of guilds which showcased their culture through brass, iron, wood, cloth, leather, and pottery. These items became the treasure that had many Europeans envious and greedy to be the owners. After all a prized possession has more appeal than something lying around not drawing attention.

    • Word count: 832
  3. What Effect Did World War II have on Eastern Europe?

    The Treaty of Versailles, one of the treaties that was made at the end of World War One was highly controversial. It required Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war and pay reparations, give up territories, begin disarmament2. These conditions were unfavorable to Germany and caused widespread dissatisfaction within the population3. The result of these conditions, however, did not have the desired effect on Germany. It was neither weakened, pacified, nor satisfied with the outcome. This would prove to be a reason for starting the Second World War.

    • Word count: 4150
  4. Reign of Terror During the French Revolution

    As Robespierre eloquently explained, the main goal of the French Revolution was "the peaceful enjoyment of liberty and equality." (Lualdi, pp. 116). The revolutionaries wanted a fair government that could allow all social classes to enjoy the same rights without making the huge distinction with aristocrats. There was an immense gap between the First Estate and the Third Estate, and the revolutionaries were trying to diminish it. (Hunt, pp. 593). However, the reign of Terror did nothing to promote liberty or equality.

    • Word count: 1009
  5. The League of Nations was unable to enforce its policies or maintain peace because of the weak alliance between powers. The US was not part of the League, some potentially strong countries, Germany and Russia, were excluded, the existing members were weak

    The second problem was that some potentially strong countries were excluded, such as Germany and Russia. Germany was not allowed to join the League as a punishment for starting World War One. Russia was not allowed as she had a communist government, an ideology that many people feared at that time. This meant that the League lost valuable support against aggressor nations, as Germany and Russia could have provided military support. The third problem was that at the time the powers were facing political and economic problems.

    • Word count: 745
  6. A comparison about Mussolinis and Hitlers domestic policies.

    To raise Germany's own economy, it was not unusual that the Germans forced foreign countries to buy their goods or forcing the other country to accept goods instead of cash for goods they had bought from them. Even though Mussolini did not know a lot about economy, he managed, just like Hitler, to decrease the country's unemployment range and increase its economy. An example of Mussolini's successful self-sufficiency is that 1945 wheat imports had been cut by 75 per cent.

    • Word count: 1036
  7. Analyze the methods used and the conditions which helped in the rise to power of one ruler of a single-party state:

    his success to the death of Hindenburg which caused the German citizens to choose him as a leader in the absence of a valid alternative. Adolf Hitler began to express his thoughts by engaging in public speeches at national socialist groups, convincing people that the enemy were Jews and Comunists. This allowed him to quickly discover his greatest skill- persuasion. His speaking skills were able to persuade listeners into thinking what he thought. As his name became more and more famous, Hitler creates his image; he designs his own symbol- the swastika and cuts back his mustache to acquire a distinct look which people would remember.

    • Word count: 1138
  8. Why was the Weimar republic so short lived?

    After WWI Germany was judged responsible for the damages and deaths caused by the war, the Treaty of Versailles was created to decide how to act in respect of the above statement. The Allies chose to make Germany pay for reparations and limit it's army in order to prevent a future outbreak of war. As the Weimar Republic accepted such diminishing terms of the treaty, people always associated the Republic with defeat and dishonor. The rise of nationalists like Adolf Hitler enforced this association even more as the speeches he presented to a quickly increasing amount of people convinced the vast majority of germans that organizations like the Weimar Republic supported the suffering and the issues that were affecting Germany.

    • Word count: 776
  9. Assess the successes and failures of Nicholas II between 1849 and 1917:

    In 1898, Russia took control of the peninsula gaining resources, territory and Port Arthur. Russia's intention was technically limited to lease the territory. However, the Japanese government saw the Russian occupation as an undesired threat as it was influencing Korea and the extension of the Trans-Siberian railway seemed like the true intention was to keep the territory permanently. After numerous unsuccessful attempts to negotiate, Japan declared war to Russia on February 8, 1904. Russia took victory for granted as the conviction of having more and better resources and men power was very popular, instead, Russia got defeated, thus making Japan look like one of the superpowers of the world and diminishing the Russian confidence towards the government and eliminating any patriotism in the country.

    • Word count: 1243
  10. Bismarck's policies. While when he was Chancellor, Bismarcks main aim will have been to maintain a strong German Empire, eradicating certain opponents within the Empire and keeping peace in Europe. These aims are reflected in his policies between

    Bismarck's intentions of making Prussia the single most dominant German state are evident in the German Confederation of 1867. The confederation united the 22 states, which had helped Prussia defeat Austria. Although the states kept their main governments their military forces were now controlled by the federal government, which meant that Prussia gained more influence, as the executive power was the King of Prussia and the federal Chancellor was Bismarck. Therefore Prussia basically controlled the military forces of the other states and the Confederation was a success because Prussia's power grew and Austria was completely eliminated from Germany.

    • Word count: 2456
  11. Analyze the long term and short term causes of the 1917 February/March Russian Revolution

    The royal family, the noble part of the society and clergy owned most of the land fit for agriculture, but most of the peasants owned only between 3 to 10 acres of land and many of them had to earn their livelihood only with 2.5 acres or less. Peasants had to pay high prices for the rent of the land to their landlords and in addition the lack of proper tools for agriculture worsened the situation. The situation was also worsened by implements and methods of cultivation, which not too productive.

    • Word count: 1551
  12. To what extent was President Lyndon B. Johnson responsible for the escalation of the war in Vietnam? (1963-1969)

    combat units which meant that the South Vietnamese would be responsible for fighting.3 - 22ndNovember 1963: Kennedy was assassinated. Lyndon Johnson takes over presidency. .4 - Johnson was especially uncertain about his presidency because he had realized his life long dream not through his own efforts to gain support of the American people but trough the murder of his president. 5 - Johnson pledged that he was "not going to be the president who saw Southeast Asia go the way China went"6. - He became the chief advocate of the US air force, pushing a 70-group air force of 12,441 planes, centering his offensive campaign on air raids, which suggested that he was entirely open to the prospect of going to war.

    • Word count: 2980
  13. Causes of WW1. How valid is the claim that in 1914, states went to war due to fear rather than motives for gain.

    In 1904, the Morroccan Crisis occurred, adding to tensions between the European states. Britain had given Morocco to France, however the Moroccans desired their independence. In 1905, Germany announced her support against France for Moroccan independence and in 1911, the Germans were again against France's possession of Morocco. Along with the fight over Alsace-Lorraine, Germany's support for Moroccan independence added greatly to tensions between them and France as well as tensions between them and Britain. The Bosnian Crisis in 1908 also added to tensions between Austria-Hungary and Serbia. In 1908, Austria-Hungary officially annexed Bosnia igniting outrage in Serbia and Russia.

    • Word count: 1071
  14. To what extent was the arms race the key cause of the Cold War?

    Thus, the race for arms and status had started early, even before there was any possibility for a cold war. The arms race was a competition for supremacy between the USA and USSR and their allies. The race for superior technology was for world domination and a stepping stone for the expansion of the sphere of influence. The superpowers wanted to "become the first one" rather than being ranked at the same level. This could only be achieved by expanding their sphere of influence; the more the artilleries- the more the power.

    • Word count: 882
  15. Argentina v. Chile. Even though these two countries are in different locations in Latin America and ruled by different leaders, they both have their similarities and their differences.

    Its first constitution was drafted in 1853 and its government was formed in 1861. Location wise, Argentina was full of agricultural land which plays a big role in their economy which at one point helped them become one of the world's ten wealthiest nations. Around the time of the United States stock market crash, Argentina also faced a time of instability which caused its constitutional government to be overthrown in 1943. When that happened, Juan Domingo Peron became the country's political leader then president in 1946. He was reelected in 1952 but later exiled in 1955 because of the government's instability.

    • Word count: 1347
  16. To what extent was Mussolinis transition from Socialist to Fascist a result of his desire for power?

    Syndicalist influence was recognizable in his subscription to violent revolutionary principles, collective psychology, and his conviction that a strong leader was necessary to incite revolutionary fervor in the masses.4 In 1908/9 Mussolini moved to Trentino, where he became involved with Cesare Battisti, nationalistic leader of the local Socialist Party.5 Influenced by Battisti's 'love the fatherland' ideology, Mussolini recognized nationalism's potential to inspire revolution and mass mobilization.6 In 1911 war erupted with Turkey;7 Mussolini, jailed for several violent 'pro-pacifism' demonstrations, gained distinction as an anti-war hero in Socialist circles.8 During this period, aspiring to reach national leadership within the Party, Mussolini

    • Word count: 2536
  17. Assess the importance of nationalism in the unification of Germany until 1866.

    Without nationalism among the common German people, both Prussia and Austria would have no force to unite them under. Nationalism made Germans realize their identity as a nation, thus wish for unification. This was done, for example, with The Wartburg Festival of 1817, where fewer than 500 students attended. Later, there was the Hambach Festival in 1832 where 25,000 people attended. As you can see from the above, the explanation is this: nationalism did not exist at the start- it grew because of the other factors which will be discussed in later paragraphs. Thus, nationalism was a spring towards unification rather than Liberalism, as previously mentioned, was important in making unification come about, because it gave way to nationalism.

    • Word count: 667
  18. How did questionable leadership actions involving the Battle of Gettysburg ultimately decide the outcome of the battle and possibly the Civil War?

    This Act was to settle the slavery issue for Kansas, but instead only caused higher tensions and bloody riots. No compromise could be reached between the Union and Confederacy in this time leading up to the presidential election of 1860. In 1860 Abraham Lincoln was elected president, but had lost every state in the traditional south, and for southerners this meant that they were further neglected and hope for their cause was lost. Shortly after the election, South Carolina seceded in January of 1861 and Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas followed.

    • Word count: 1722
  19. Why Did War Time Friends Become Cold War Enemies?

    Others agree that the USA was to take the blame. Such historians support their view by stating that Soviet actions were merely defensive; that the USA wanted to control its area of influence, but refused to allow the Soviet Union to do the same. Finally, there is also the view that neither of the superpowers was to be blamed; that the Cold War was based on misunderstanding, a fore beyond the control of both sides. As we will see, the actual events that led to the development of the Cold War can be considered to agree with the three views, to a certain extent.

    • Word count: 2026
  20. Assess the aims of two countries entering the First World War. To what extent were they successful in achieving their aims?

    This is clearly seen in the summer of 1911, when Germany demanded the whole of French Congo as compensation for leaving Morocco alone. This ties in to Germany's next aim, which was to catch up and eventually dominate other industrial powers. Britain and France were such powers, and perhaps Wilhelm II acted in 1905 in Morocco as a desperate attempt to prevent French control of the nation. He did this by telling the Sultan of Morocco that he recognizes it as an independent nation; if Moroccan independence was brought into concern, the French would not have it- a clear victory for the Germans.

    • Word count: 1015
  21. IB Extended Essay - How where the Conquistadors able to defeat the Incan and Aztec Empires?

    The pandemic is often believed to have originated from China, and from there spread throughout Europe. The disease reached Spain by rats carrying the disease on merchant ships that traveled across the Mediterranean Sea by 1348. The disease causes swollen lymph nodes which mean "buboes" in Greek, hence the bubonic plague, and if infected one had less than a fifty percent chance to live. The plague was so tragic that it is believed to have wiped out up to possibly even half of Europe's total population, which was the most developed and populated continent on earth.

    • Word count: 2291
  22. Investigation: The Cuban Missile Crisis as a Thaw in the Cold War

    * Nothing guides Russian policy so much as a desire for friendship with the United States (Walker 29) * The spies in the sky ranging from U-2 spy planes to sputnik made the Russians nervous and alarmed (Walker 117) * Containment policy (Dobson) * The nuclear weapons of the Cuban Missile Crisis got the United States into the Cold War, and through negotiations they can release the tensions (Bundy 136) Missile Crisis and Initial Heat * "Rational individuals came that close to total destruction of their societies and that danger exists today" (McNamara)

    • Word count: 4023
  23. Revision notes - British Welfare State, Economics - Keynsianism, monetarism and liberalism

    * OPEC - 5 month embargo on oil to US and Netherlands (supporting Israel) * reduced production -prices skyrocketed - gas shortages in US - consumer goods rose - prices rose - economic slowdown and inflation ? led to the need to change economic strategy ? liberal democracies faced a slowdown in the economy (recession) and inflation - Stagflation ? British PM Callaghan realized that they could no longer spend their way out of recession (Keynesian economics wasn't working!!) D.

    • Word count: 950
  24. Revision notes on Liberalism -philosophy, politics and history

    Tolerance Can vary according to the issue being addressed - moves more towards the social democratic philosophies ? Socially they want greater levels of freedom and personal choice(abortion, same-sex marriage, gun controls) but will accept more government intervention in politics and economics ? John Stuart Mill ? More inclined to favour humanitarianism, environmental issues Classical Liberalism (Big L) (19th Century) - Def: A political belief in which primary emphasis is placed on securing the freedom of the individual by limiting the power of the state. In its economic form, it advocates a respect for private property and free markets.

    • Word count: 831
  25. Israeli- Palestinian Conflict. I chose this topic due to my personal connection with the Palestinian- Israeli conflict. My grandparents, who were born and raised in Palestine, were forced to relocate and move the neighboring country of Jordan in order to

    To this day, Palestinians and Israelis alike are being killed over border disputes. Violence in the region has spanned over centuries, and it is a failure of humanity for the inability to produce a solution that will help these two groups of people co-exist peacefully. In 1948, a British mandate system created the country of Israel inside of a territory known as Palestine2. This mandate failed to recognize the Arabs that had lived there for thousands of years, and it displaced approximately 730,000 Arab civilians, which ultimately began the long, bloody history of the two nations, as well as conflict with surrounding Arab nations.

    • Word count: 1092

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