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International Baccalaureate: History

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  1. Why did Stalin rather than Trotsky emerge as the leader of the USSR in 1929?

    party through his administrative work and holding of key positions, all enabling him to secure a strong power base with which he could successfully emerge as the next leader of the USSR. The most important of these positions was his appointment as General Secretary in 1922. This position, coupled with the fact that he was the only member of the party in both the Politburo and the Orgburo, enabled Stalin to control both the membership of the party and the appointment of key positions as well as what information other people received, and also by setting the agendas for party meetings, he was able to control what was discussed.

    • Word count: 1522
  2. To what extent was Germany the focus of Cold War hostility between 1945 and 1961?

    Germany's geographical position in the centre of Europe and its potential economic strength, made it difficult for the western powers and the USSR to agree about what they could do with Germany. The USSR did not wish to see a resurgent united Germany as that would pose a threat to its security. At the same time, it wished to get as much as out of Germany as possible in terms of reparations. The USA had come to see that the best hope for European peace would lie on the rapid economic recovery of Germany.

    • Word count: 1138

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