• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Cold War Study Guide - Compare/contrast the Vietnam War policies of Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Name Grace Ives Cold War Study Guide #3 Directions: Please prep 3 questions with at least 3/4 page of bullet points per question. Prepare each question on a separate page. Be sure to include relevant quotations and statistics (with citations) from your readings. 1. Compare/contrast the Vietnam War policies of Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon. LYNDON JOHNSON Operation Rolling Thunder - During Lyndon Johnson's presidency, he tried to limit the US' involvement in Vietnam to please the American public, but he found that in order to win the war, he would have to increase the number of troops sent to Vietnam. - Lyndon Johnson's presidency oversaw the vietnam escalation. - Lyndon Johnson conducted a US mission called, "Operation Rolling Thunder". Operation Rolling Thunder was an air force mission led by the US army in which there was relentless bombing on North Vietnam. The objective was to essentially boost the weakening morale of Southern Vietnam, and to weaken North Vietnam in hopes to end the war. - Kennedy describes operation rolling thunder as "regular full-scale bombing attacks against North Vietnam" (Kennedy 991) - Johnson sent over hundreds and thousands of troops, but tried to keep the US' increasing involvement with Vietnam as secret. - The initial focus of the increased number of US troops was to protect the US airbases in South Vietnam. Gulf of Tonkin & the Tonkin Resolution - The gulf of Tonkin incident was when the US' USS Maddox was attacked while on a "routine parol cruise" off the coast of North Vietnam. ...read more.

Middle

- Nixon conducted covert operations with the CIA, that would help to promote Allende's opponent in Chile, to prevent Chile from being controlled by communist rule. - The CIA operations proved to be a failure when Allende was elected in 1970. But even after Allende was elected, Nixon wanted the CIA to "prevent Allende from coming to power or to unseat him" (Gaddis 174). - The mission to prevent Allende's presidency was a failure on Nixon's behalf. The CIA was unable to prevent his inauguration, and actually ended up killing the commander in chief of the Chilean army instead. - Much like in Johnson's presidency, Nixon was creating somewhat of a credibility gap. - "The gap between what appeared to be happening and what was actually happening was widening" (Gaddis 174). - Further creating somewhat of a credibility gap, Nixon formed "the plumbers". This was a group of retired detectives and former FBI and CIA members. They were ordered to perform illegal burglaries, and conduct phone taps and surveillance operations. - The group created controversy when some group members were arrested after being inside the headquarters of the Democratic National COmmittee in the Watergate building. - Nixon was also involved Vietnam, after Lyndon Johnson's escalation of action in Vietnam. - In 1973, Nixon made an agreement in Hanoi (Vietnam capitol) that the US would withdraw troops. ...read more.

Conclusion

- The second round of negotiations of the SALT II accords was more complicated than the first. This is because the two sides were agreeing to essentially be equal. The US and the Soviet Union had agreed to not duplicate one another's weapons, but the negotiators had to look to how they would "impose equivalent limits on weapons systems that were not themselves equivalent" (Gaddis 201). CARTER: - Jimmy Carter hoped to limit both the fighting in the war, and the usage and development of nuclear weapons in general. In his campaign for presidency he promised that he would seek "deep cuts" in strategic arsenals, rather than just "freezing" them (Gaddis 201). - The SALT II negotiations finally followed through after some controversy and setbacks, and a treaty was signed in June of 1979 in Vienna. The treaty didn't fully address the reduction of nuclear weaponry, in fact it benefited mainly the Soviet Union by allowing for improvements to be made in Soviet weaponry. - However, Carter went back on the treaty by revoking it when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. Carter withdrew the treaty in retaliation to the Soviet Union, as an act of protection and opposition. - Gaddis describes Carter's withdrawing of the treaty as a "striking shift for a president who, on taking office three year earlier, had hope to bring the Cold War to an end" (Gaddis 211-212) - Carter's initial presidential goals were repeatedly being undone by responding to the Soviet Union's actions. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. World War 1 Information

    > Lenin takes control of the Soviets > Fall 1917, Provisional Government promises land redistribution, but the peasants are already revolting and seizing land on their own > Soviets in Russian army mutiny\ > November 6th and 7th, 1917 Bolsheviks seize the Winter Palace (where the gov't is seated)

  2. US and the Vietnam War

    21 Jan. 2009 <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1875.html>. "The Ho Chi Minh Trail... soon became a misnomer. It was like a superhighway literally a lifeline to victory... gave the NVA the advantage of interior lines... could concentrate their forces anywhere in the South more quickly than the ARVN" Summers JR., Harry G. Historical Atlas of the Vietnam War.

  1. To what extent was President Lyndon B. Johnson responsible for the escalation of the ...

    7 This was part of the strategic campaign adopted by Johnson in approach to the Vietnam War was one of 'Graduated Pressure' - This was a fundamentally flawed strategic concept that permitted deepening American involvement in the war without consideration of its long-term costs and consequences.

  2. Assess the reasons affecting the end of the Cold War.

    Other Historians however argue that it was perhaps the rise of discontent and nationalism in Eastern Europe which pushed the Soviet Union over the edge, and thus effectively ending the Cold War. The likes of Gaddis argue that the Soviet Union was "a sand pile ready to slide", and that

  1. Internal Assessment - How effective were the policies implemented by the U.S. during the ...

    Evaluation of Sources The origin of the first source is a book authored by Mary L. Hanneman, "Japan Faces the World 1925-1952." Published in 2000, the purpose of this secondary source is to convene accurate information about Japan's history on the years 1925 to 1952 to the public, especially students.

  2. Mao and China Revision Guide

    Mao imposed on his party the idea that the revolution should be based on the peasants in the countryside. He seemed like the man who knew what he was doing, but he still was not in charge. 1935: New Year ? The Zunyi Conference 1935-45: Created the Yanan Soviet 1942:

  1. Explain the USAs policy of containment. How successful was this in Korea, Vietnam and ...

    spread communism and therefore it could be seen as a success as it would make USSR more reluctant to take control over more countries. Another country which USA used its policy of containment with was Vietnam. After the Second World War the Japanese occupied Vietnam, however since Vietnam had been

  2. Extended Essay History: How did the US media reporting of the Vietnam War out ...

    This led the American public to doubt General Westmoreland 's earlier statement about America's military success in Vietnam. and question how weak the Vietcong actually were. It is important to note that while the US media reported on events out ________________ of context in their reporting of the Tet Offensive,

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work