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Review Marwick's article "The Fundamentals of History", in so doing, defining what he regards history to be.

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´╗┐HIST2001B ASSIGNMENT 1 : Historical Analysis 1008636272 Kim Taesun 1. Review Marwick's article, in so doing, defining what he regards history (the subject) to be. In The Fundamentals of History, Arthur Marwick defines history as the bodies of knowledge that consists of the production, communication and teaching about the past produced by historians. Therefore, what historians do is produce knowledge about the past, not reconstruct the past. There is an awareness of the distinction between history and the past. It implies that history as "the bodies of knowledge about the past produced by historian", and "the past" as "everything which actually happened, whether known, or written, about by historians or not". The author points out the necessity, subjectivity question, second and primary sources, witting and unwitting testimony and strategy as a key factor to care about for historical study. Before mentioning what history should regard to be, the author emphasizes the answer to the question "What is the use of history?", which is related to the necessity for history. Knowledge about the past is essential to society that without the knowledge of history we would be without identity. Understanding of past events and circumstances can provide a opportunity for approach to the complicated issues such as Palestine or the Balkans. ...read more.


Thus, history is not just a matter of analysing a single source, but accumulating details from various sources refined through qualification, corroboration and correction. Another important factor to define work of history is strategy to exploit sources. The need for strategy using sources to identify the topics to be addressed and the archives to be used is emphasized in the article. The technical skills lie in understanding how and why a particular source came into existence and how relevant it is to the topic under investigation. Along with the strategy, it is also important to develop a structure to deliver knowledge about what was happening, what interactions there were, what changed, and what did not. Marwick defines the fundamental of history is to convey knowledge with precise and explicit language about the past based on investigation and analysis of the evidences. He indicates that "history is not a formation dace in which everybody in one period marches in one direction, and then, in the next, marches off in a different direction." Study of history is essential to society and the knowledge helps identify who we are and who we will be. Therefore, history regards to be based on logical thought and scholarly discipline and there ought to be careful attention to how it is produced, communicated and taught about. ...read more.


Nevertheless, this change of tendency does not mean that other forms of history have disappeared. One result of Carr's influence was to guide many historians to reflect on their own biases and preconceptions in their works, to articulate the purposes for which they wrote. However, he also encouraged them, in the long run, to make a virtue of necessity. A genuine historian will never manipulate or distort the materials which the past has left behind and which form the basis for the historian's work; but within the limits of what the sources allow there is plenty of room for differing emphases and interpretations. Knowledge of historiography is considered important to comprehending how to study the past because it helps to grasp the cause and effect of the past and also the correlation with other happenings of importance. More importantly, the evidence from the past may be biased or mistaken, fragmentary after long periods of cultural or linguistic change. It is impossible to exactly recreate past experience. The best we can do is to create critical thinking and analytical processes, as well as establish evaluative methods to understand the past. Historians therefore, have to assess their evidence with a critical eye and provide the necessary means to interpret, analyse and evaluate the past in an informed manner. ...read more.

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