• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent is it fair to say that with the impact of the Civil War the Bolsheviks were able to consolidate their hold over Russia?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

To what extent is it fair to say that with the impact of the Civil War the Bolsheviks were able to consolidate their hold over Russia? Historical Investigation Ida Tammivuori cyd135 (001301-018) IB Section of Jyv�skyl�n Lyseon lukio Upper General Secondary School 31.08.2009 Word Count: 1 996 TABLE OF CONTENTS A. PLAN OF INVESTIGATION 3 B. SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE 3 C. EVALUATION OF SOURCES 7 D. ANALYSIS 8 E. CONCLUSION 10 F. BIBLIOGRAPHY 11 G. APPENDIX 12 To what extent is it fair to say that with the impact of the Civil War the Bolsheviks were able to consolidate their hold over Russia? A. Plan of Investigation The purpose of this investigation in to asses whether the Bolsheviks were able to consolidate their hold over Russia with the impact of the Civil War. This period was a turning point in Russian history that considerably changed the country. Conclusion will be reached by evaluating the effects of the war and the Bolsheviks policies that enabled them to survive through the war. Literature by historians in the field who have investigated the Russian documents from this period is mainly used in the study. Two of these sources, Lenin: A Biography by Robert Service, and The Black Book of Communism are evaluated for their origins, purposes, values and limitations. B. Summary of Evidence On October 1917 the Bolshevik party of Russia found itself from a difficult situation.1 It had been easy to take over the provisional government, but there was no guarantee of them surviving for long, since there was fierce opposition to their rule from the other political parties that had been outlawed by them.2 Furthermore, they did not respect democracy by taking over, without even being the largest political group3, and signed the Brest-Litovsk treaty.4 5 They were still a small party6 who had nothing like majority support in the country.7 To wipe out all their opponents, military and political, Lenin thought that a short, brutal struggle in the form of a civil war would help them to consolidate their power. ...read more.

Middle

For them, the Civil War was a fight for their lives. The uprisings that increased during the war demonstrate how discontent the people were. Because the Whites had been won in 1920, the government could no longer claim that they were fighting against the counterrevolutionary forces. The peasants understood that it was them who would be destroyed. The broad definition of kulak meant that the government could execute anyone they held dangerous. The peasants, most backward class in Russia, were not interested in politics or who the leader of the country was. What they really wanted was to cultivate their lands and be left alone. For them, it seemed that they were being more suppressed than in the tsarist times. The fact that the government was so isolated from the largest social group that was scattered around the country made it difficult to lead effectively. Given Russia's great size, taking over with military control is understandably difficult and time-consuming. Furthermore, the Red Army was made up of peasants and workers, who had to fight against their own kind. Obviously, this made them very untrustworthy fighters. People were not happy with being forced to join the Red Army, since most of them shared no common ideology with the Bolsheviks. Even the greatest supporters of the Bolsheviks, the sailors, turned against them. The contribution of national minorities that seeked independence made the already weakening government control even weaker. The fact that the attempts on Lenin's life had been so easy to commit showed how weak this control was - he was a leader of a dictate after all, but the subjects had no respect for him, and he could even be killed. The War Communism helped the Bolsheviks to survive through the Civil War, but at the same time it ruined the economy and caused revolts that threated to overthrow them. It seems quite clear that it would have been impossible for the Bolsheviks to stay in power if they had continued this policy. ...read more.

Conclusion

Lowe, p. 355 18 Lynch, Reaction and Revolution: Russia 1894-192, p. 146 19 Ibid., p.147 20 who were referred to as kulaks, hated by the Bolsheviks because they were thought to exploit the poorer peasants. 21 Lowe p. 351 22 The famine was direst in the cities, and the surplus grain was meant for the people working there. 23 the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for fighting Counter-Revolution, Sabotage and Speculation 24 St�phane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism, 1997 25 Ibid., p. 101 26 Ibid., p. 95 27 There were up to 315 of them, holding about 70 000 prisoners by 1921. Courtois, p. 103 28 Lynch, Reaction and Revolution: Russia 1894-192, p. 4 29 Courtois, p. 77 30 Lynch, Stalin's Russia, p. 4 31 Kenez, p. 38 32 Ibid., p. 53 33 Klas-G�ran Karlsson, Vaino ja vaikeneminen, 2005, p. 145-146 34 There were civil and ethnic wars in every neighbouring country of Russia that had belonged to the tsarist regime. Service, p. 463 35 Ibid,. p. 72-73 36 Service, p. 479 37 In the first half of 1920, there were strikes in 70% of the large and medium-sized factories. Courtois, p. 114 38 Ibid., p. 111 39 The area where most peasant uprising occurred throughout the war was the area around Volga. ibid., p. 136 40 Lynch, Reaction and Revolution: Russia 1894-192, p. 149 41 Many of the organized uprisings had very similar demands. The manifesto of the Kronstadt rebels is in the appendix. 42 Service, p. 435 43 Ibid., p. 151 44 New Economic Policy 45 They were replaced by a tax system that was less exploiting. ibid., p. 152 46 This policy greatly improved the economy. The wages doubled and the value of factory outputs grew, as well as the production of electricity. 47 Id. 48 Kenez, p. 43 49 Karlsson, p. 113 50 Heikki Eskelinen, foreword for the Finnish edition, p.14 ?? ?? ?? ?? Ida Tammivuori - cyd135 (001301-018) 13 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. The Chinese Civil War

    However, Chiang Kai Shriek believed that it was "more important to destroy the communists than to resist the Japanese." (Lowe 409) Therefore, he moved into the south to attack Mao and the communists instead. With this decision, many of his own troops turned against him and imprisoned him.

  2. the causes and consequences of the spanish civil war

    In 1982 Spain made a final break with the past by voting in a socialist government with a sizeable majority. The only major blemish on the domestic front since was the terrorist campaign waged by separatist militant group ETA in its bid for an independent Basque homeland.

  1. World War 1 Information

    mobilization of troops > August 1st, Germany declares war on Russia and immediately sends troops to France because Germany feels that Russia and Austria-Hungary will stay busy 10.2 The War 1914-1917 > Schlieffen Plan > made in 1905 (10 years before the war)

  2. To What Extent Was Stalin's Regime Based On Terror

    There was no justice in the trials whatsoever, just terror and Stalin used the purges to, as there name indicates, 'clean' the USSR of thousands of people that he thought could be a threat to him, notably Bukharin and many others of the Communist Party.

  1. IB History HL, Extended Notes: Russia, the Tsars, the Provisional Govenment and the Revolution.

    Strengths 1. Local initiative in place of administrative control, benefitted from local knowledge. 2. Became critical of the regime as they became concerned with local issues such as education and welfare. 3. Liberal minded doctors, teachers, and scientists were appointed and would later become a focal point for further reform.

  2. To what extent did women gain social equality during the 1920s?

    There was an increase in popularity of clubs such as Camp Fire Girls &Girl Scouting. The aspect of females joining together was a useful way to provide services for girls and women within communities, as well as to encourage participation and cooperation.

  1. Discuss the methods used by Hitler to Consolidate Power at 1933 1934

    Gregor Strasser, his rival in the 1920s, was killed. Many more were also shot for opposing Hitler in the Reichstag, such as von Streicher, or for betrayal during the Beer Hall Putsch, i.e.

  2. Notes on the History and Development of the Arab-Israeli Conflict

    Lebanon was the country where Palestinians fared best, enjoying freedom of speech and many becoming successful in business and banking in Beirut. Some Palestinians also moved to the Persian Gulf countries and the United Arab Emirates - The Palestinians

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work