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Why did the Communists win the Chinese Civil War between 1945 and 1949?

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Introduction

´╗┐Irene Li 11XN History Dr Amthor Why did the Communists win the Chinese Civil War between 1945 and 1949? The Chinese Civil War, also known as the ?War of Liberation? broke out between the National Revolutionary Army (also known as GuoMingDang), led by Chiang Kaishek, and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), led by Mao ZeDong in an effort to control China, at the end of World War II in 1946 and ended on October 1st, 1949. Many people believed that the GuoMingDang would easily win, given their huge military advantage with a powerful American trained and American-equipped army of three million men. They also occupied the industrialized cities, all the main railway lines, plenty of money and large stocks of weapons[1] . By contrast, the CCP were relatively weak, holding only several countryside areas, without an air force, few railways and no navy, nor the backing of a foreign country[2]. Given the GMD?s military superiority in 1946, some may argue that it was Chiang?s war to lose, rather than Mao?s to win however, this essay will examine the differences in CCP and KMT?s support from the people, their armies and moral, their military leadership and employed tactics, and government affairs, and how this eventually led to Communist victory due to CCP?s superiority in these four areas and the KMT?s strategically mistakes. ...read more.

Middle

Although the population looked to the GMD for strong leadership, they were proved wrong as the strategy of ?Trading Space for Time? looked cowardly. According to historian J. Belden, ?The basis of all conscription was bribery and influence?officers considered it their privilege and right to beat soldiers.? Clearly, it wasn?t a surprise if GMD soldiers were willing to desert at any time in the war, and even bringing weapons with them when they joined the the CCP. The maltreatment of soldiers, shown in this quote, resulted in an army that did not believe in Nationalist ideology and beliefs- the Three Principles of the People[4]. At this moment, the CCP, although poorly equipped, fought bravely against Imperial Japanese Army, displaying great patriotism in the eyes of the peasants. Moreover, Mao?s guerilla warfare tactics [5] showed the unity and cooperation used by the PLA army, so many peasants became volunteers or part of militias. Even ?women and children kept guard along along the roads and outside the villages?, which shows the support- that the PLA had, this expanded to going from an approximated 50,000 troops to over 3,000,000 by the end of the war, not including the 2.5 million peasant militia and the support of 100 million peasants[6]. ...read more.

Conclusion

Roberts who stated that ? ?Chiang Kai-shek was full of contradictions. He relied on Western support, but he did not like Europeans. He claimed to be the defender of China's independence but he made little effort to drive the Japanese out of China?. However, in the CCP, all party members, particularly cadres thought ?correctly? and were indoctrinated with the Communist ideology, which they then passed along to peasants and ?Liberated? areas. The ideology-driven goal of the CCP was evident in all the behavior by PLA soldiers and commanders alike, becoming role models for peasants. The Communists only had military guidance from the Soviets and were not reliant on other foreign powers, whereas the strength of the GMD came mainly from the foreign aid. The CCP won the war because the party was focused in driving their ideology across to the people. In conclusion, what allowed the Communists to win the Chinese Civil War was that it was able to gain the mass support of the people, and was determined in fighting, while the Nationalist troops were demoralized. Mao understood the importance and potential of having the support of the majority of the people ? the peasants, while Chiang Kai Shek was caught up upon getting the support of the middle class bourgeoisie (only a small percentage) Essentially, ignoring this reality was what prevented Chiang from succeeding like Mao did, along with other factors. ...read more.

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