• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Why did the Communists win the Chinese Civil War between 1945 and 1949?

Extracts from this document...


Irene Li 11XN History Dr Amthor Why did the Communists win the Chinese Civil War between 1945 and 1949? The Chinese Civil War, also known as the ?War of Liberation? broke out between the National Revolutionary Army (also known as GuoMingDang), led by Chiang Kaishek, and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), led by Mao ZeDong in an effort to control China, at the end of World War II in 1946 and ended on October 1st, 1949. Many people believed that the GuoMingDang would easily win, given their huge military advantage with a powerful American trained and American-equipped army of three million men. They also occupied the industrialized cities, all the main railway lines, plenty of money and large stocks of weapons[1] . By contrast, the CCP were relatively weak, holding only several countryside areas, without an air force, few railways and no navy, nor the backing of a foreign country[2]. Given the GMD?s military superiority in 1946, some may argue that it was Chiang?s war to lose, rather than Mao?s to win however, this essay will examine the differences in CCP and KMT?s support from the people, their armies and moral, their military leadership and employed tactics, and government affairs, and how this eventually led to Communist victory due to CCP?s superiority in these four areas and the KMT?s strategically mistakes. ...read more.


Although the population looked to the GMD for strong leadership, they were proved wrong as the strategy of ?Trading Space for Time? looked cowardly. According to historian J. Belden, ?The basis of all conscription was bribery and influence?officers considered it their privilege and right to beat soldiers.? Clearly, it wasn?t a surprise if GMD soldiers were willing to desert at any time in the war, and even bringing weapons with them when they joined the the CCP. The maltreatment of soldiers, shown in this quote, resulted in an army that did not believe in Nationalist ideology and beliefs- the Three Principles of the People[4]. At this moment, the CCP, although poorly equipped, fought bravely against Imperial Japanese Army, displaying great patriotism in the eyes of the peasants. Moreover, Mao?s guerilla warfare tactics [5] showed the unity and cooperation used by the PLA army, so many peasants became volunteers or part of militias. Even ?women and children kept guard along along the roads and outside the villages?, which shows the support- that the PLA had, this expanded to going from an approximated 50,000 troops to over 3,000,000 by the end of the war, not including the 2.5 million peasant militia and the support of 100 million peasants[6]. ...read more.


Roberts who stated that ? ?Chiang Kai-shek was full of contradictions. He relied on Western support, but he did not like Europeans. He claimed to be the defender of China's independence but he made little effort to drive the Japanese out of China?. However, in the CCP, all party members, particularly cadres thought ?correctly? and were indoctrinated with the Communist ideology, which they then passed along to peasants and ?Liberated? areas. The ideology-driven goal of the CCP was evident in all the behavior by PLA soldiers and commanders alike, becoming role models for peasants. The Communists only had military guidance from the Soviets and were not reliant on other foreign powers, whereas the strength of the GMD came mainly from the foreign aid. The CCP won the war because the party was focused in driving their ideology across to the people. In conclusion, what allowed the Communists to win the Chinese Civil War was that it was able to gain the mass support of the people, and was determined in fighting, while the Nationalist troops were demoralized. Mao understood the importance and potential of having the support of the majority of the people ? the peasants, while Chiang Kai Shek was caught up upon getting the support of the middle class bourgeoisie (only a small percentage) Essentially, ignoring this reality was what prevented Chiang from succeeding like Mao did, along with other factors. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. World War 1 Information

    because they did not get promoted in the army to officers and only one French speaking unit was made > The draft did not exempt farmers sons and made more tensions > about 100,000 Canadians were drafted into the military and only 25,000 went through training to go to Europe

  2. the causes and consequences of the spanish civil war

    Hitler also requested that German troops be allowed to enter Spain and occupy Gibraltar, but Franco refused and did not give permission.

  1. U.S. Civil War Essay

    States like Delaware and Maryland had slaves but they did not secede; therefore Lincoln was cautious not to aggravate them so they would follow suit with the Confederates. The common misconception about the Civil War is that it was fought in order to sustain or abolish slavery.

  2. Mao Zedong and the Education(TM)s changes in the People's Republic of China

    After the chaotic years The Cultural Revolution was not just a disaster for the Party, for the country, but for the whole people13. Besides the dead, millions of Chinese limped away from the battles and repression of the Cultural Revolution physically and psychologically scarred.

  1. Napoleon: Enemy or Son of Revolution

    These people were granted in return for their support on Napoleon and this clearly portrays how Napoleon was prepared to return to some of the practices of the ancien r�gime (Lee 19). Furthermore, the government was not elected by the people.

  2. Mao and China Revision Guide

    revolutionary committees, and was strengthened by the rehabilitation of large numbers of victims of the Cultural Revolution during the mid-1970s. The second ?enduring consequence? that the events of the 1960s created a serious crisis of confidence among the young people of China.

  1. Account for the Rise of Power of Mao Zedong

    the peasants by outlining standards of decency, honesty, respect and cordiality, resulting in the peasants accepting and often joining the army as a force fighting for their rights and entitlements. These behavioural standards helped further cement the developing camaraderie between peasants and communists, as well as clearly displaying that the

  2. Which of indoctrination and repression proved most effective for consolidating Hitler's power (1933-1939)?

    [7] That?s how Goebbels managed to establish a system of censorship preventing anything against the Nazi ideals to be published. Control of Culture: Cinema, literature, music and art came under the control of Goebbels. Therefore to make sure the government had control over these, Goebbels established the ?Reich Chamber of Culture? (1933).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work