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# Pendulum Lab

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Surface Area and the Period of a Pendulum        Raphael Hanna

IB HL Chemistry (Surface Area and the Period of a Pendulum)

Submitted to: Ms. Fronczak

Submitted by: Raphael Hanna

Date: February 17, 2009

Course: SCH3UC

Design

Question:

How will varying the surface area of the bob affect the period of a pendulum?

Independent and Dependant Variables:

The surface area of the bob was varied by melting chocolate into different shaped blocks with the same volume. The resulting effect on the period of the pendulum was measured. The independent variable in the experiment was the surface area of the chocolate blocks and the dependant variable was the period of the pendulum.

Controlled Variables:

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of surface area on the period of a pendulum. This was does by varying the surface area of several blocks of chocolate and then measuring the period of the pendulum. Several variables however, can alter the results of this experiment.

Controlled variables:

Pivot point- The type of pivot point could affect how the pendulum swings by increasing the friction and changing the velocity of the pendulum. In this experiment the type of pivot point was kept constant throughout the experiment

Length of the string- The length of the string will vary the arc on the pendulum and the period as a result will change.

Middle

 Trial Number Time(s) needed to complete subsequent number of periods 1 period 5 periods 6  periods 10  periods Trial 1 1.0s(±0.1s) 6.5s(±0.1s) 7.99s(±0.1s) 13.64s(±0.1s) Trial 2 1.0s(±0.1s) 6.6s(±0.1s) 8.15s(±0.1s) 13.50s(±0.1s) Trial 3 1.1s(±0.1s) 6.6s(±0.1s) 8.18s(±0.1s) 13.54s(±0.1s) Trial 4 1.2s(±0.1s) 6.8s(±0.1s) 8.04s(±0.1s) 13.69s(±0.1s) Trial 5 1.2s(±0.1s) 6.5s(±0.1s) 7.07s(±0.1s) 13.57s(±0.1s)

Test Bob #2

Dimensions: 2cm x 2cm x 3cm                 Dimensions of affected sides: 2cm x 3cm and 2cm x 2cm

Chart 2: The time in seconds needed to complete the allotted number of periods.

 Trial Number Time(s) needed to complete subsequent number of periods 1 period 5 periods 6  periods 10  periods Trial 1 0.9s(±0.1s) 6.8s(±0.1s) 8.31s(±0.1s) 13.74s(±0.1s) Trial 2 1.0s(±0.1s) 6.9s(±0.1s) 8.29s(±0.1s) 13.90s(±0.1s) Trial 3 0.9s(±0.1s) 6.6s(±0.1s) 8.18s(±0.1s) 13.85s(±0.1s) Trial 4 0.8s(±0.1s) 6.7s(±0.1s) 8.28s(±0.1s) 13.87s(±0.1s) Trial 5 1.2s(±0.1s) 6.8s(±0.1s) 8.32s(±0.1s) 13.84s(±0.1s)

Test Bob #3

Dimensions: 1cm x 3cm x 4cm                 Dimensions of affected sides: 3cm x 4cm and 1cm x 3cm

Chart 3: The time in seconds needed to complete the allotted number of periods.

 Trial Number Time(s) needed to complete subsequent number of periods 1 period 5 periods 6  periods 10  periods Trial 1 1.2s(±0.1s) 6.7s(±0.1s) 8.18s(±0.1s) 13.75s(±0.1s) Trial 2 0.8s(±0.1s) 7.0s(±0.1s) 8.19s(±0.1s) 13.72s(±0.1s) Trial 3 1.1s(±0.1s) 7.0s(±0.1s) 8.13s(±0.1s) 13.56s(±0.1s) Trial 4 1.2s(±0.1s) 6.6s(±0.1s) 8.15s(±0.1s) 13.59s(±0.1s) Trial 5 1.1s(±0.1s) 6.8s(±0.1s) 8.01s(±0.1s) 13.74s(±0.1s)

Test Bob #4

Dimensions: 1.5cm x 2cm x 4cm        Dimensions of affected sides: 1.5cm x 2cm and 2cm x 4cm

Chart 4: The time in seconds needed to complete the allotted number of periods.

 Trial Number Time(s) needed to complete subsequent number of periods 1 period 5 periods 6  periods 10  periods Trial 1 1.1s(±0.1s) 6.8s(±0.1s) 8.04s(±0.1s) 13.69s(±0.1s) Trial 2 1.1s(±0.1s) 6.8s(±0.1s) 8.29s(±0.1s) 13.73s(±0.1s) Trial 3 1.1s(±0.1s) 6.7s(±0.1s) 8.04s(±0.1s) 13.70s(±0.1s) Trial 4 1.2s(±0.1s) 6.8s(±0.1s) 8.15s(±0.1s) 13.84s(±0.1s) Trial 5 1.2s(±0.1s) 6.8s(±0.1s) 8.19s(±0.1s) 13.73s(±0.1s)

Test Bob #5

Dimensions: 1cm x 1.5cm x 8cm           Dimensions of affected sides: 1cm x 1.5cm and 1.5cm x 8cm

Chart 5: The time in seconds needed to complete the allotted number of periods.

 Trial Number Time(s) needed to complete subsequent number of periods 1 period 5 periods 6  periods 10  periods Trial 1 1.1s(±0.1s) 6.8s(±0.1s) 7.89s(±0.1s) 13.43s(±0.1s) Trial 2 1.4s(±0.1s) 6.5s(±0.1s) 8.02s(±0.1s) 13.53s(±0.1s) Trial 3 1.0s(±0.1s) 6.6s(±0.1s) 8.16s(±0.1s) 13.23s(±0.1s) Trial 4 1.0s(±0.1s) 6.7s(±0.1s) 8.04s(±0.1s) 13.51s(±0.1s) Trial 5 1.1s(±0.1s) 6.7s(±0.1s) 8.03s(±0.1s) 13.46s(±0.1s)

Conclusion

Test Bob#2: Dimensions: 2cm x 2cm x 3cm

Average for 1 period is 1.0s(±0.5s), 5 period is 6.8s(±0.5s), 6 period is 8.3s(±0.5s), 10 period is 13.8s(±0.5s).’

Test Bob#3: Dimensions: 1cm x 3cm x 4cm

Average for 1 period is 1.1s(±0.5s), 5 period is 6.8s(±0.5s), 6 period is 8.1s(±0.5s), 10 period is 13.7s(±0.5s).

Test Bob#4: Dimensions: 1.5cm x 2cm x 4cm

Average for 1 period is 1.1s(±0.5s), 5 period is 6.8s(±0.5s), 6 period is 8.1s(±0.5s), 10 period is 13.7s(±0.5s).

Test Bob#5: Dimensions: 1cm x 1.5cm x 8cm

Average for 1 period is 1.1s(±0.5s), 5 period is 6.7s(±0.5s), 6 period is 8.0s(±0.5s), 10 period is 13.4s(±0.5).

Average time to complete one period through averages of all trials:

 Test Bob#1: Dimensions: 1cm x 2cm x 6cmAverage for the combined trials was 1.33s(±0.09s).Test Bob#2: Dimensions: 2cm x 2cm x 3cmAverage for the combined trials was 1.36s(±0.09s).Test Bob#3: Dimensions: 1cm x 3cm x 4cmAverage for the combined trials was 1.36s(±0.09s). Test Bob#4: Dimensions: 1.5cm x 2cm x 4cmAverage for the combined trials was 1.36s(±0.09s).Test Bob#5: Dimensions: 1cm x 1.5cm x 8cmAverage for the combined trials was 1.33s(±0.09s).

Chart 7: The average time taken to complete one period

 Average Time to Complete One Period for Each Surface Area(Bob)Surface Area Vs. Time Test Bob #(Surface Area) Test Bob#1(16cm²) Test Bob#2(20 cm²) Test Bob#3(30 cm²) Test Bob#4(22 cm²) Test Bob#5(27cm²) Time(s) 1.33s(±0.09s) 1.36s(±0.09s) 1.36s(±0.09s) 1.36s(±0.09s) 1.33s(±0.09s)

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