• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour Hofstede 1973 conducted a classic piece of research, involving asking employees of the multinational company IBM to fill in surveys about morale in the workplace. He then carried out content analysis on their responses, focusing on the key differences submitted by employees in different countries. He called the trends he noticed ?dimensions.? By 2001 he had data from 72 countries and had identified 5 major work related trends. These are power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity vs femininity, individualism vs collectivism and long term vs short term orientation. This essay will examine these last two dimensions. Time orientation reflects the extent to which a culture has a dynamic future-orientated mentality and refers to the degree to which a culture encourages delayed gratification of material, social and emotional needs among its members. This was based on the argument put forward by Hall 1959, who said that the ways humans experience time is influenced by their culture. In 2001, Hofstede renamed this dimension long term vs short term orientation. Long term orientation cultures value persistence, loyalty and trustworthiness. They value long-standing as opposed to short term traditions and values. Individuals in such cultures strive to fulfil their own long-term social obligations and avoid loss of face. Short term orientation cultures are not concerned with past traditions. ...read more.

Middle

It was also never published so it could be unreliable. Ayoun and Moreo 2009 surveyed hotel managers in the USA and Thailand, and found that Thai managers placed stronger emphasis on long term strategic plans and a stronger reliance on long term-evaluation of strategy. This studies? sample size wasn?t generalizable as it looked at hotel managers, only had correlational data (can?t infer cause and effect) and didn?t control the variables. It did however have good ecological validity as it was a natural experiment. Levine and Norenzayan 1999 related time orientation to everyday behaviours. They measured how fast people walked in downtown areas of major cities, the speed of a visit to the post office and the accuracy of clocks in 31 countries. They found that life pace was fastest in countries like Switzerland, Ireland and Germany, and slowest in Mexico, Indonesia, Brazil and Syria. This research showed that in short term cultures people are in a rush to get things done, whereas in long term cultures people are more relaxed about timing. This study is reliable as it was a natural study (ecological validity), and had a good sample size. However, it must be asked if they had consent as they were observing random people. Overall, all the studies examined have been reliable as they were all finding the same results using different methods. ...read more.

Conclusion

Bond and Smith 1996 did a meta-analysis of 133 conformity studies all using the Asch paradigm. They took studies from 17 countries (decent sample size) and found more conformity in collectivist countries (Fiji, Hong Kong, Brazil) than in individualist countries (USA, UK, France). This shows that members of collectivist countries value conformity because it promotes group relationships and reduces conflicts. Therefore agreeing with others in collectivist societies is more likely to be viewed as a sing of sensitivity than of submission so somebody else?s views, which is how it may be perceived in individualist countries. Thus cultural dimensions may have an influence on behaviour as they change people?s view of the behaviour (in this case conformity). The number of studies Bond and Smith looked at for each country varied wildly and is therefore unreliable. But, this doesn?t mean that members of collectivist societies always conform to group views. Earley 1993 found that conformity levels depend on the exact nature of the group. Collectivist cultures may be more likely to conform to members of a group they are tied to. Williams and Sogon 1984 found significantly higher levels of conformity among the Japanese groups who already knew one another than among groups who did not. As the studies have shown, cultural dimensions can effect behaviour e.g. conformity and speed of life. The studies taken all together build a reliable picture and further emphasise the differences between the cultures of the world. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. IA stroop effect

    silent and not interfering/disturbing anyone else, including those participating in the experiment. * You will now be briefed before the experiment, and once all the participants have completed the experiment, you will be debriefed. The experiment will then be concluded.

  2. Psychology IB Abnormal Notes and Essay Plans

    Efficient self perception 2. Realistic self esteem and acceptance 3. Voluntary control of behavior 4. True perception of the world 5. Sustaining relationships and giving affection 6. Self-direction and productivity 1. Problems with Jahoda's 6 characteristics 1. Unemployed lack a majority of those characteristics 2.

  1. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier by Ishmael Beah--A Psychological Analysis ...

    and the need to feel safe and be a part of something when all else has broken down?I wanted to avenge the deaths of my family?and the only way to do that was to be part of the army?I have been rehabilitated now, so don?t be afraid of me.

  2. The two roles of cultural dimensions on behaviour that I will examine are individualism ...

    This shows to an extent that in Japan, children are raised to the expectations of the social society. Japan is a country of conformity and thinking as a group. In this culture, someone who is too different, opinionated, or outspoken might be viewed as a selfish show off and potentially a threat to the rest of the group.

  1. With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent does genetic inheritance influence ...

    Research based in the area of evolution is speculated since little is known about homo sapien human ancestors. Their behaviour is generally assumed, potentially decreasing the validity of research based on human evolutionary theories. Empirical testing in the field of evolution is quite restricted, causing a chance of the appearance

  2. Evaluate the role that one cultural dimension (e.g. individualism/collectivism, power distance) may have on ...

    First, there seems to be a difference in attribution tendency between collectivistic societies and individualistic societies. As mentioned above, people in collectivistic societies are more interdependent. Therefore, one?s action are likely to be viewed as situationally bound, and chacterizations of the individual are more likely to include the context.

  1. Using empirical evidence examine the concepts of normality and abnormality

    Maladaptive behaviors may be thought of as those that cause difficulties or are counterproductive for the individual or for others. If an individual?s abnormal behavior, mood, or thinking adversely affects their well-being, then help is needed. On a more extreme level, if an individual?s abnormal behavior becomes a danger to

  2. Research Project - Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace.

    There is a strong relationship between emotional intelligence and other intelligences such as, verbal-propositional intelligence. Studies have also shown that there is a link among verbal and spatial intelligence (Van Rooey et al., 2005). It has been used a measurement of emotional intelligence to gauge patients with disorders.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work