The two roles of cultural dimensions on behaviour that I will examine are individualism and collectivism

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The two roles of cultural dimensions on behaviour that I will examine are individualism and collectivism. Both dimensions are what divide cultures into two "sub categories". The term individualism refers to 'individualist societies', where bonds between individuals are loosely based. This means that every being are referred to as a 'true individual' where one is expected to look after him/herself and/or his/her own family. On the other hand the term collectivism refers to 'collectivist societies', where an individual is expected to conform immediately to society's rules and expectations from birth onwards, as well being integrated into strong cohesive in-groups. For example an extended family, such as uncles, aunts and grandparents to provide support and protection towards that individual. Nevertheless if an individual in a conformed collectivist society does not reach to its (society, family and large social groups) expectations, severe results can arise because of this.

Although individualism and collectivism cultural dimensions are not commonly researched, a few studies had been carried out. Such as Markus and Kitayama (1991) research on contrasting two different cultures; the 'westernized' and the 'non-westernized' culture, that is Japan and the United States, to see individuals from two different social groups dimensionsm, Geert Hofstede (1980) study on the IBM organisation's worldwide employees, and lastly Heine and Darrin Lehman (1995) study, on university students from different cultural backgrounds of positive and negative events that would happen to them and their views. These are examples of researches that I will be using in order to support my explanation of the individualism and collectivism cultural dimensions.

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Cultural factors are what influences self concepts, in this case individualism and collectivism illustrates this, where for example in Japan the saying "the nail that stands out gets pounded down" and in the United States the saying "squeaky wheel gets the grease". This shows to an extent that in Japan, children are raised to the expectations of the social society. Japan is a country of conformity and thinking as a group. In this culture, someone who is too different, opinionated, or outspoken might be viewed as a selfish show off and potentially a threat to the rest of the group. ...

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