• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Freud's Theory on Structure and Functioning of Personality

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

DESCRIBE AND EVALUATE FREUD'S THEORY ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONING OF PERSONALITY Sigmund Freud developed his ideas about the structure and functioning of personality from work with mental patients. He believed that personality has three aspects: the id, the ego, and the superego, all developing at different stages in life. Firstly, Id is the primitive mind, the part of the personality which contains our primitive impulses such as sex, anger and hunger (basic needs and feelings). At birth a baby's mind is all id. Id is the source for libido (psychic energy) and it has only one rule: the "Pleasure Principle": The id demands immediate satisfaction of our two main instincts (Eros and Thanatos). In Freud's view, the id is totally unconscious; it has no contact with reality. It functions in the irrational and emotional part of the mind. Secondly, the Ego is the part of the personality which maintains a balance between our impulses (id) and our conscience (superego). It is the Freudian structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality. ...read more.

Middle

It punishes us through a conscience and makes us feel proud when we behave "properly". As regards the functioning of personality Freud believed that it develops in stages, which are the oral stage, the anal stage, the phallic stage, the latency stage and the genital stage. Oral stage is the development stage up to approximately the first year of a child's life during which the infant's pleasure centres are in the mouth. The infant at this stage is dependent and needs security and love which could be achieved via the connection that it has through the mouth with its mother. This stage is divided into the receptive sub-stage during the first few months of life and the biting sub-stage that is more aggressive. Two personality types could be developed depending on whether the child was over satisfied or neglected by the parents, the oral incorporative and the oral aggressive character. Anal stage is the development stage from 1 to 3 years of a child's life. ...read more.

Conclusion

The balance between id, ego and superego is better than at any other stage. But soon puberty strikes and the genitals once again become a central focus in child's life. Genital stage is the development stage from 12 years to 18 years and older. During this stage the child's energy once again focuses on his genitals and the libido reawakens. If the child has covered the needs of the previous stages it will be capable to develop normal relationships with the opposite sex. The theory described above was based on case studies with Freud's patients. Freud found that during hypnosis his patients were talking about their unconscious memories and desires and revealed their unconscious wishes and phobias. Freud's theory explains a wide range of behaviours, however, various studies focusing on the testing of specific Freudian concepts, such as repression have shown that results could be obtained in other ways as well. In addition, although there is evidence that some characteristics of personality do exist it is not certain whether they are due to fixation. Finally, Freud's theory was criticised as subjective and biased from his own culture and using concepts too vague to be studied objectively. 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. Compare and contrasting Freudian psychoanlytic theory and one neo-Freudian

    All of the stages have its own consequences when a person becomes fixated in it. But, the two most crucial stage of the development is the anal stage and phallic stage. The anal stage encompasses the second year of life. The child gets its erotic pleasure from their bowel movements.

  2. Examine the Concepts of Normality & Abnormality

    time when absolute monarchies were gradually giving way to liberalised social orders, is not to be forgotten. Thus the revolt against psychoanalytic assumptions in DSM-I and DSM-II, were in fact a rebellion against social assumptions - effectively part of the same rebellion as that taking place against the work of Jahoda or others.

  1. Understanding Childrens Behaviour. The purpose of this writing is to explore the theoretical ...

    These proximity-seeking behaviours include laughing, gurgling and crying. Attachment of the child and parent develops over a period of time and is mainly achieved by the routine care giving tasks that parents and children are involved in (Berk, 1996). M. Ainsworth Psychological Ainsworth built upon Bowlby's work in the 1970s.

  2. Revision notes on the Development of Moral Behaviour

    chair to reach a cupboard so he could get out a jar of jam that was there. He could not reach the jam but as he stretched up he knocked over a cup and it fell to the floor and broke.

  1. Case Study Development of Autistic Child

    or biological factors, and the family/cultural questions take in consideration the child's behavior as acceptable in the given cultural or family environment (Squires, 2002). It has not yet been determined by the family or teachers if Mason will be evaluated by a mental health professional.

  2. Psychodynamics - On unconscious

    The painful memories, and unfulfilled desires and wishes, which are according to Freud the causes of the disorders, are recognized by transfer into conscious through methods of free association, dream analysis, and interviews. By identifying the cause of the problem, a person is supposed to reach catharsis - an emotional release and thereby the neurosis seems to disappear.

  1. Of Dreams and Reality: A paper on hypnosis and dream analysis

    We were asked to find a place from our childhood, symbolic perhaps of milieu which was special to us by virtue of being a comfort zone for us. Afterwards, a friend would come to us and share with us some words of wisdom.

  2. Social Identity Theory in Gender

    and knowing to conform to in-group norms?Girls have long hair, boys don?t wear dresses; It is from their known gender identity that in-group and out-group homogeneity arises.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work