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In what ways may disagreement aid the pursuit of knowledge in the natural and human sciences?

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A disagreement occurs when a different opinion is expressed (Oxford Dictionary). To a certain degree, it is assumed by the question that disagreement aids in the pursuit of knowledge. There are cases that will be evoked that indicate otherwise. Isaac Newton stated that ?if [he] has seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.? (Hawking, 9) He is stating that those who develop future pursuits of intellect in the form of knowledge are those who best understand and develop further works created by major thinkers of prior times. Newton believes that the in-depth study of others? work, and at times disagreeing with some of it can push us forward in our pursuit of knowledge. The areas of knowledge being dealt with are pre-determined by the topic and are: human science and natural science. Natural science is a branch of science which deals with the physical world (Merriam-Webster). This includes physics, chemistry, and biology among others, including geology. This also includes human physiology. Anything in medicine discussing how our bodies work falls into the natural sciences. When we take that a step further to discuss behavior, this is what constitutes human science. This type of science is a field that deals with the institutions as well as the functioning of human society. This also encompasses the interpersonal relationships of individuals as members of society. ...read more.


The solution that may be determined by a combination of multiple solutions represents some form of a compromise. This compromise was aided by the disagreement and the two opposing perspectives put forth. These two men were both driven by the desire to have their own model be the one that is deemed as correct. They therefore tried there best to find proof, and further their own models, fixing any gaps or issues with their theories. They also tried to falsify the other school of thought. The attempts to falsify the opposing school of thought is what lead them both to further their research so as to mend any outstanding issues. Finally, in this case, it greatly improved the models, and also allowed for a middle ground, which is the unified model that is used by the Canadian government. This model is one where the market is allowed to run freely, with occasional government intervention. In contrast, some believe that the advancement in the pursuit of knowledge could be achieved when we are in agreement; this would allow us to proceed much faster in the pursuit of knowledge. Also, having multiple different perspectives, in disagreement, leads to a muddy, more complex understanding of the situation, which is not positive for the average consumer. This makes it more difficult to gain knowledge on the subject, as the ?correct? model is not clearly stated, and is a matter of opinion. ...read more.


The result of his findings is that religious thinkers have affirmed both the significance and the reliability of historical accounts, whilst putting them in an evolutionary context. This view that is somewhat in between the two, is new knowledge that has been formed, as it is a unique perspective, despite belief in both evolution and creationism. Over time, scientific paradigms have been shifted numerous times to the ones that provide better explanations as scientists doubted the prior paradigms and endeavored to get better knowledge of our world. For those reasons, doubt plays a major role in pursuit of knowledge in the natural sciences. In conclusion, it is evident that the ways of knowing things in the natural sciences greatly differ from that of the human sciences. In the natural sciences, once scientists receive a good concept, it is gradually refined and extended with increasing degrees of subtlety as instruments of measurement are improved (Asimov, 42). Theories, therefore, are usually not wrong, but more likely, incomplete. The human sciences allow for two theories, even opposing one?s, to stand as knowledge for an extended period of time. There may be two schools of thought that can remain, until one is entirely disproved. It is much harder to disprove a theory in the human sciences as a result of the inability to accurately predict the decisions of human beings. This study could be looked at to a greater extent, and we can generalize in saying that if people did not have disagreements and challenge the norm, society would not have evolved in the rapid way that it did. ...read more.

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