• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Are Muscle Fibre Types Genetically Determined Or Determined By Training?

Extracts from this document...


Are Muscle Fibre Types Genetically Determined Or Determined By Training? The type of muscle fibres an athlete possesses will prove to be a limiting, or promoting factor in the sport an athlete chooses to participate in. There are two main types of muscle fibre, slow twitch and fast twitch. Slow twitch fibres enable an athlete to perform under aerobic conditions whilst fast twitch fibres enable an athlete to perform under anaerobic conditions. Therefore the percentage an athlete possesses of each can be a predictor of how well an athlete will do in a given sport. The percentage of each type of fibre an athlete possesses is genetically determined. That is it is inherent from parents and other ancestors. This could be shown by a muscle biopsy taken, for example (although not practical in real life), at birth and then again at a later stage in the athletes life. The percentage of muscle fibre types would still be the same. ...read more.


They have a greater resistance to fatigue and higher aerobic capacity than type IIb. These muscle fibres can be utilised through training to give an enhanced performance. They can be changed through training. Although this does not change the percentage of genetically determined muscle fibre types in the body, it does show that training plays a part in our muscle fibre make up, and also shows that a person with high percentage of fast twitch fibres could still compete in a marathon against athletes with higher percentages of slow twitch fibres. Training is obviously an important factor to consider. Training causes changes to the body as a whole. For endurance training one of the main adaptations is increased VO2 max. This means more oxygen can reach the muscles and so they can work harder and longer. Endurance training also increases the number of capillaries around type I muscle fibres meaning they can get more oxygen to them. ...read more.


After looking at both sides of the argument it is clear to see that neither is completely right. Our fibre types are indeed determined genetically and we will be stuck with what we were born with but it is not the only factor that needs to be considered. It has been shown here that through training of either type of muscle fibre it is possible to exploit our existing fibres to a better degree and that also with motivation to do well our genetically determined fibre types do not have to be a limiting factor. Unfortunately, so far, there has not been any 100% conclusive scientific evidence that can prove that muscle fibres do or do not change with training, as studies have not been conducted over long enough time periods. It is appropriate to say that the evidence so far shows that type I cannot be changed but type IIa can modify to being like type IIb and also more like type I fibres. Thus meaning we can always train to be what we wish to be. Elliott Owen: N0036961 Word Count: 841 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Sports Science section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Sports Science essays

  1. Anabolic steroids sometimes referred to as roids or juice is synthetic hormones that cause ...

    swings if used over a long period of time especially if the person is not training whilst taking them as there is a build up of energy and no where for the energy to stream thus a build up of tension and aggression.

  2. Physiological Adaptations to Exercise

    ( VE = TV x F ) * An increased Tidal Volume (TV). * An increased Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV). * An increased Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV). * An increase of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), TV + IRV + ERV.

  1. Physiology of exercise and training.

    There are general guidelines for healthy eating these are increase intake of starchy high carbohydrate foods, choose lower fat options, eat more food which is high in fiber, eat less sugar, eat less salt and reduce alcohol intake. (National Coaching Foundation 99).

  2. Sport industry.The sport industry is important to many people whop work in it and ...

    money for yourself and sponsorship is getting a sponsor for your sports club or team but still get money from it as well. Sponsorship and fund raising are both different to income from mass media or advertisement because those two you raise money and get a sponsor or just do

  1. Oxygen Uptake and VO2 Consumption When Training

    exercise (Poole et al, 1988 cited in Saunders et al, 2000; Poole et al, 1990 cited in Saunders et al, 2000). The duration of exercise have been found to determine the magnitude of the slow component and the cause of the slow component is the increase in blood lactate levels,

  2. Free essay

    Psychological Skills Training Of A Competing Athlete

    and then proceeded to complete the PSIS, therefore getting the subject thinking about their psychological state. The subject was then debriefed on the results of the PSIS, it may have been more appropriate to have debriefed the subject at the end of the session, as the results from the PSIS may have influenced answers.

  1. Insulin and Genetically Modified Humans In Sport.

    It works in such a way that the steroids actually initiate new muscle and the insulin then prevents it from being broken down. It can also sustain stamina in runners and track performers enabling their muscles to be loaded with glycogen.

  2. Research Proposal - how diet and dietary supplements affect muscle growth.

    conducted a study on was leucine. Berg (2002, p. 126;128-129) also writes about leucine, mentioning; according to Eric Noreen, M.S., a doctoral candidate in the exercise nutrition research laboratory at the University of Western Ontario, Canada, some strong evidence suggests that branch-chained amino acids, specifically leucine, have the potential to be anabolic.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work