• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Are Muscle Fibre Types Genetically Determined Or Determined By Training?

Extracts from this document...


Are Muscle Fibre Types Genetically Determined Or Determined By Training? The type of muscle fibres an athlete possesses will prove to be a limiting, or promoting factor in the sport an athlete chooses to participate in. There are two main types of muscle fibre, slow twitch and fast twitch. Slow twitch fibres enable an athlete to perform under aerobic conditions whilst fast twitch fibres enable an athlete to perform under anaerobic conditions. Therefore the percentage an athlete possesses of each can be a predictor of how well an athlete will do in a given sport. The percentage of each type of fibre an athlete possesses is genetically determined. That is it is inherent from parents and other ancestors. This could be shown by a muscle biopsy taken, for example (although not practical in real life), at birth and then again at a later stage in the athletes life. The percentage of muscle fibre types would still be the same. ...read more.


They have a greater resistance to fatigue and higher aerobic capacity than type IIb. These muscle fibres can be utilised through training to give an enhanced performance. They can be changed through training. Although this does not change the percentage of genetically determined muscle fibre types in the body, it does show that training plays a part in our muscle fibre make up, and also shows that a person with high percentage of fast twitch fibres could still compete in a marathon against athletes with higher percentages of slow twitch fibres. Training is obviously an important factor to consider. Training causes changes to the body as a whole. For endurance training one of the main adaptations is increased VO2 max. This means more oxygen can reach the muscles and so they can work harder and longer. Endurance training also increases the number of capillaries around type I muscle fibres meaning they can get more oxygen to them. ...read more.


After looking at both sides of the argument it is clear to see that neither is completely right. Our fibre types are indeed determined genetically and we will be stuck with what we were born with but it is not the only factor that needs to be considered. It has been shown here that through training of either type of muscle fibre it is possible to exploit our existing fibres to a better degree and that also with motivation to do well our genetically determined fibre types do not have to be a limiting factor. Unfortunately, so far, there has not been any 100% conclusive scientific evidence that can prove that muscle fibres do or do not change with training, as studies have not been conducted over long enough time periods. It is appropriate to say that the evidence so far shows that type I cannot be changed but type IIa can modify to being like type IIb and also more like type I fibres. Thus meaning we can always train to be what we wish to be. Elliott Owen: N0036961 Word Count: 841 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Sports Science section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Sports Science essays

  1. Oxygen Uptake and VO2 Consumption When Training

    that the rate of heat accumulation by the body is increased and fatigue, or an inability to exercise voluntary, occurs sooner than when exercising in cool conditions (Werner, 1993). Rowell (1974) cited in Febbraio (2001) found a reduction in O2, substrate delivery and utilisation because of reduced muscle blood flow during exercise in the heat.

  2. Physiological Adaptations to Exercise

    * Record the number of shuttles completed at that level by the athlete * Cool down Sergeant Jump Equipment: Tape measure Jump board (at measured distance from the floor) Recording sheets Method: * Measure distance to bottom of jump board from ground * Athlete to crouch and jump straight upwards, touching the jump board at the highest point.

  1. Physiology of exercise and training.

    This should take no longer than 15 mins. Cooling down after activity is also important." There are physiological, psychological and safety reasons for cooling down"(Howley and Franks 1990). This statement indicates cool down should be carried out after each training session.

  2. Free essay

    Psychological Skills Training Of A Competing Athlete

    he wasn't sure what imagery exactly was and pointed this out, this suggested he wanted to be clear on the questions to answer accordingly. The writer believes the answers given were truthful and were not given with a sense of longing to please otherwise the subject would not have wanted to be so precise on the questions asked.

  1. Sport psychology is practiced by psychologists specializing in the domain of sport psychology and ...

    believe you wouldn't find competing in a team sport a difficult transformation as he has a lot of the characteristics required to perform with others. He is confident and outgoing and finds team sports to be more exciting than individual sports.

  2. Anabolic steroids sometimes referred to as roids or juice is synthetic hormones that cause ...

    These cells include muscle cells, hairs, some skin glands and certain areas of the brain. Anabolic steroid appears to increase protein production and so increases the size and strength of muscles. This process can reverse if the muscle is not stimulated, and so that is the reason training is needed as well as steroids to increase muscle size.

  1. Insulin and Genetically Modified Humans In Sport.

    It works in such a way that the steroids actually initiate new muscle and the insulin then prevents it from being broken down. It can also sustain stamina in runners and track performers enabling their muscles to be loaded with glycogen.

  2. Research Proposal - how diet and dietary supplements affect muscle growth.

    The training programme for all participants will be a duration of ten weeks (see attached). To make this method as reliable as possible I will choose moderately fit male participants who have had no previous experience of weight training. As a result, no participant should have any advantage over another.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work