• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Basic progression of AIDS.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Basic progression of AIDS Acute HIV infection stage Acute flu-like symptoms for about 2 weeks following infection with HIV Includes chills, fever, severe fatigue, swollen glands, rashes, diarrhea, and weight loss. Asymptomatic stage Referred to as the window period, a time when there is no symptoms present, but HIV is replicating in the blood. HIV illness stage - pre AIDS stage More damage upon the immune system and increased symptoms because individual becomes more susceptible to certain infections and cancers Recurrent flu-like symptoms, recurrent yeast or fungal infections, or reactivation of inactive tuberculosis and women may have aggressive pelvic inflammatory disease or rapidly advancing cervical cancer. Final AIDS stage HIV disease becomes AIDS when your immune system is so damaged that you have less than 200 CD4+ cells or you get an opportunistic infection or AIDS-related cancer On average it takes 7 - 10 years to develop AIDS ...read more.

Middle

The virus enters into the cells and begins to integrate into the chromosomes of the cell. The HIV virus works like a foreign enemy agent, who infiltrates the bloodstream and sneaks past cells. HIV Life Cycle Step 1: Binding A virus consists of an outer envelope of protein, fat and sugar wrapped around a set of genes (in the case of HIV, genetic information is carried as RNA instead of DNA) and special enzymes. HIV has proteins on its envelope that are strongly attracted to the CD4+ surface receptor on the outside of the T4-cell. When HIV binds to a CD4+ surface receptor, activates other proteins on the cell's surface, allowing the HIV envelope to fuse to the outside of the cell. Step 2: Reverse Transcription HIV's genes are carried in two strands of RNA, while the genetic material of human cells is found in DNA. ...read more.

Conclusion

Step 5: Translation The messenger RNA carries instructions for making new viral proteins from the nucleus to a kind of workshop in the cell. Each section of the messenger corresponds to a protein building block for making a part of HIV. As each messenger RNA strand is processed, a corresponding string of proteins is made. This process continues until the messenger RNA strand has been transformed or "translated" into new viral proteins needed to make a new virus. Step 6: Viral Assembly Finally, a new virus is assembled. Long strings of proteins are cut up by a viral enzyme called protease into smaller proteins. These proteins serve a variety of functions, some of which become structural elements of new HIV, while others become enzymes, such as reverse transcriptase. Once the new viral particles are assembles, they bud off the host cell, and create a new virus. this virus is then able to infect new cells. Each infected cell can produce a lot of new viruses. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Genetics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Genetics essays

  1. Skin cancer: not only and old person's disease

    This can be seen from the absence of a UV-signature mutation in 92% of all melanoma. Furthermore, it is also believed that among the probable skin cancer causes are people having fair skin, red or blond hair, blue, hazel or green eyes, freckled faces, those whose skin tans poorly and

  2. Influenza Virus Essay

    and some wild birds. On the inner side of the influenza virion is an antigenic matrix protein lining. The influenza genome, which is organized into eight pieces of single-stranded RNA (A and B forms only; influenza C has 7 RNA segments).

  1. Chron's Disease

    The degree of inflammation associated in this condition tends to be less in the older adult than in the younger patient. Medical management of the older patient with Crohn's disease is similar to younger patients. However, because of increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary complications, older adults tend to have increased morbidity associated with younger patients.

  2. INDUSTRIAL USE OF ENZYMES

    Peroxidase: An oxidative heme-containing enzyme that uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidise aromatic compounds. It is responsible for lignin biosynthesis in plants and initiates lignin biodegradation by certain rot-fungi. Phytase: A phosphatase enzyme that hydrolyses phosphoester bonds in phytic acid. Is widely used in animal feeds.

  1. Perhaps the most famous part of the Sistine Chapel ceiling is called "The Creation ...

    "The bottom line is, we don't know much about the relative contributions of the cytoplasmic egg and the nuclear genome," Smith says, theorizing that the egg cell itself, separate from its DNA-containing nucleus, may play more than just a mechanical role in the development of an embryo.

  2. The Ethics of Human Cloning.

    This may be taken to the extreme however in a cloned child, where their appearance, manner and intelligence can to some extent be predicted and consciously or unconsciously compared to that of the original, which may constantly overshadow it. This scenario could be compared to somebody buying a new car,

  1. Separation of serum proteins and enzymes bypolyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis (PAGE)

    resolution in the separation of proteins another advantage over other methods is that the gel pores can be tailored to suit the protein being separated. This can be used when little molecule sieving is required as the pores are simply made larger to allow them to pass.

  2. Using DNA to Solve Crimes.

    Understanding the Backlog The state and local backlog problem has two components: (1) "casework sample backlogs," which consist of DNA samples obtained from crime scenes, victims, and suspects in criminal cases, and (2) "convicted offender backlogs," which consist of DNA samples obtained from convicted offenders who are incarcerated or under supervision.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work