Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate.
IB Biology SL III Ryan Martucci Topic 2: The Chemistry of Life 2-10-03 8th period Sub-topic: 2.4 DNA Structure 2.4.1 2 Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate. Genetic information is stored by nucleic acid. There are two kinds of nucleic acids: deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) and ribose nucleic acid (RNA). For the majority of organisms genetic information is stored in DNA in the nucleus and RNA are found in the cytoplasm. (Some viruses and prokaryotes store genetic information in RNA.) Nucleotides are complex molecules consisting of three molecules linked together: 1. a ribose pinto sugar, 2. a phosphate group, 3. a nitrogen bade. The sugar can be two possible sugars: 1. Ribose gives RNA with the molecular formula, C5H10O5, 2. Deoxyribose gives DNA with the molecular formula C5H10O4. The phosphate's molecular formula is H3PO4. Building a nucleotide: The nucleotide is usually represented as follows. Topic 2: The Chemistry of Life Sub-topic: 2.4 DNA Structure Page: 2 Since the reactions involves are condensation reactions, the equation becomes phosphate + sugar + organic base = nucleotide + two waters. 2.4.2 1 State the names of the four bases of DNA. The organic bases can be one of the five different bases: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil.
How has molecular evidence altered our views on human / ape relationships?
How has molecular evidence altered our views on human/ape relationships? The two major issues in investigating human/ape relationships, are the nature of the relationships between humans and great apes, and the timing of their divergence. Various molecular techniques can be used in order to try and establish molecular clocks, which rely on the regularity of change over time. Allthough the accuracy of such molecular clocks is questionable, the culmination of evidence from many different techniques and areas of research, enable us to piece together probable relationships and timescales, as well as enabling us to rule out previous suggestions which have been made in error. One form of molecular evidence of our ancestry is provided by immunological studies. An organism's immune system protects its body against invasion by foreign material, such as protein, as it may cause harm to the organism. The body responds to these foreign substances (antigens) by producing anti-bodies. These anti-bodies react against the antigen to either destroy or neutralise it. Each anti-body is specific to the invading antigen. The serum of blood contains proteins, such as albumin, but no clotting factor, therefore proteins from one animal are foreign to an animal of a different species. Such proteins therefore act as antigens in the other animal's body, and that animal produces antibodies to try
Cell-cycle regulation is mediated by reversible phosphorylation events - Discuss.
Oliver Heath Corpus Christi College Cell cycle tutorial 1: Essay: Cell-cycle regulation is mediated by reversible phosphorylation events. Discuss. A cell reproduces by performing an orderly sequence of events in which it duplicates its contents and then divides in two. This cycle of duplication and division, known as cell cycle, is the essential mechanism by which all living cells reproduce. Eucaryotic cells have evolved a complex network of regulatory proteins known as the cell-cycle control system that governs progression through the cell-cycle. The core of this system is an ordered series of biochemical switches that control the main events of the cycle, including DNA replication and the segregation of the replicated chromosomes. A lot of these switches are involved in performing reversible phosphorylation events responsible for mediating cell-cycle regulation. The eucaryotic cell-cycle is divided into four sequential phases: G1, S, G2 and M. G1, S and G2 together are called interphase. Cells are released from mitosis into G1 phase, during which there is no DNA replication. The initiation of DNA replication marks the transition from the G1 phase to the period of S phase. The latter lasts until all of the DNA has been replicated. The G2 phase is the period of time that separates the S and M phases
Sequencing the Human Genome
Sequencing the Human Genome What is the Human Genome? Every living organism is produced from DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) contained within the nucleus of their cells. DNA is primarily two strands of corresponding base/nucleotide pairs, consisting of Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine, arranged in a double helix linked by hydrogen bonds. The human genome is the 'order' in which these base pairs are arranged in humans which would allow certain amino acids, polypeptides and proteins to be formed by the process of translation of mRNA (formed by transcription). What is the Human Genome Project? The Human Genome Project was established in 1990, when public funding was agreed for the purpose of determining the human genome in terms of the order of the base pairs. Its original target completion date was 2005, but advancing technologies have allowed this to be brought forward to 2003. In June 2000, the first ever rough map of the human genome was completed, but not by the publicly-funded Humane Genome Project; instead by an independently run private research institute named 'Celera Genomics', which went on the complete the entire human genome in 2001 with the aid of genetic pioneer Frederick Sanger. Beginning the Human Genome Project Imagine that the human genome, which consists of over 3 billion nucleotide pairs, is the earth. In order to produce a map of its surface, it is
The purpose of this lab is to predict the molecular and ionic geometries of the species listed using Lewis dot structures, and find if the molecule has resonance structures.
Molecular Bonding Lab I. Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to predict the molecular and ionic geometries of the species listed using Lewis dot structures, and find if the molecule has resonance structures. Variables: ==>Dependent Variable: The dependant variables in the lab are the Lewis Dot structures for the compounds. ==>Controlled Variables: The controlled variable in the lab is the formula for the compounds. ==>Independent Variable: The independent variable in the lab is the molecular structure. II. Hypothesis: When given a chemical formula, I will be able to show their Lewis-Dot structure and construct their molecular model. When I do this, I will then be able to determine if it is polar, show it's molecular geometry, bond angles, and if the compound has symmetry or not. When gathering all of this information, I will be able to determine the chemical properties of each molecule. III. Materials: . Lab 2. Textbook Chemistry 3. Molecular model kits i. Wooden balls ii. Wooden sticks iii. Metal springs 4. Minerals (unknowns) i. Pyrite (cube) ii. Fluorite iii. Dolomite iv. Pyrite (pyritohedron) v. Zircon vi. Aragonite vii. Quartz viii. Orthoclase ix. Calcite IV. Procedure: Part A. Wooden Ball Molecular Models 1. Find the total number of valence electrons for the molecule. 2. Select the appropriate molecular modeling equipment from the
Transfer of plasmid-mediated resistance to ampicillin in E.coli
Transfer of plasmid-mediated resistance to ampicillin in E.coli Asya Zahra Husnain B'ham Uni Edgebaston B'ham B15-2TT Abstract- A plasmid containing resistance to an antibiotic (usually ampicillin) is used as a vector. The gene of interest is inserted into the vector plasmid and this newly constructed plasmid is then put into E. coli that are sensitive to ampicillin. The bacteria are then spread over a plate that contains ampicillin. The ampicillin provides a selective pressure because only bacteria that have acquired the plasmid can grow on the plate. Therefore, as long as you grow the bacteria in ampicillin, it will need the plasmid to survive and it will continually replicate it, along with your gene of interest that has been inserted to the plasmid. I will be transforming E.coli with a plasmid containing a gene coding for antibiotic resistance. I will observe growth colonies on agar. I will then cut up this plasmid with restriction enzymes and run the fragments through a gel electrophoresis column. Key words- ampicillin- antibiotic resistance- Plasmid- Gel electrophoresis. Introduction: A plasmid is a small circular double-stranded extrachromosomal DNA molecule (about 2,000 to 10,000 base pairs) that contains genes, which play an important role in the bacterium. This can often be a gene that encodes a protein, which makes the bacteria resistant to an
DNA Fingerprinting Lab Analysis.
Cody Baird AP Biology Mrs. Gannon December 19, 2003 AP Biology DNA Fingerprinting Lab Analysis Questions . Analyze the bands in the gel drawing below, then answer the following questions. a. If this were a fingerprinting gel, how many samples of DNA can you assume were placed in each separate well? One sample from each suspect and from the crime scene were placed in separate wells. b. What would be a logical explanation as to why there is more than one band of DNA for each of the samples? There is more than one band for each of the samples because different sizes of DNA fragments travel at different speeds. Smaller fragments move more easily than larger fragments, so smaller fragments pass through the agarose gel faster and go farther than the larger fragments do during gel electrophoresis. c. Which of the DNA samples have the same number of restriction sites for the restriction endonucleases used? Write the lane numbers. The DNA sample two, three and four have the same number of restriction sites because they all resulted in two bands. d. Which sample has the smallest DNA fragment? Sample five has the smallest DNA fragment because one of its bands traveled the farthest through the agarose gel. e. Based on your conclusion of the gel, what is your conclusion about the DNA samples in the photograph? Do any of the samples seem to be from the same source? If so,
DNA and the Identification Process of Criminals…
DNA and the Identification Process of Criminals... DNA analysis has emerged as an extremely valuable tool for the American criminal justice system. In countless cases it has served to identify the suspect, convict the guilty, and bring some solace to the victim. In other cases it has exonerated the innocent, at times after years of unjust imprisonment. DNA's capacity to illuminate the empirical truth provides the opportunity to use it for enhancing the efficiency, effectiveness, equity, and credibility of criminal justice throughout the nation. The states and the federal government need to work cooperatively to assure that this powerful investigative resource is used to its fullest extent and in accordance with strict scientific standards. DNA analysis can be very helpful in linking suspects to crime scenes when forensic evidence is identified, collected, and preserved properly for laboratory analysis. Law enforcement personnel need to be trained appropriately so that the value of forensic evidence is not compromised. Improper handling of evidence or failure to recognize forensic evidence undermines the value of DNA analysis. States and the federal government should make the analysis of DNA forensic evidence a priority and support the expansion of CODIS (Combined DNA Index System). DNA analysis becomes more valuable as the size of offender databases increases. As more
FZ3011 Forensic Genetics SECTION A Short Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms Structure STRs, also known as microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR), are 2-6bp DNA sequences tandemly repeated units flanked by unique sequence. They are usually between 100-300 bp long. They are classified based on the structure of the number of core repeats (base pairs): * Dinucleotide - 2 * Trinucleotide - 3 * Tetranucleotide - 4 * Pentanucleotide - 5 (Russell, 2006). They are also divided into categories depending on the type of repeats: * Simple - contain the exact same sequence and length with non-consensus alleles. * Compound - contain repeats of two or more adjacent simple repeats (non-consensus). * Complex - can be of several repeat blocks, varying sequences or intervening sequences. * Hypervariable - complex repeats with numerous non-consensus alleles, e.g. STR loci SE33 or ACTBP2. * Microvariants - contain alleles with incomplete repeat units, e.g. allele 9.3 at TH01 locus (Butler, 2005). Occurrence They are scattered throughout the genome and occur approx. every 10,000 nucleotides (Butler, 2005). Methods of Detection * Fluorescently labelled primers in PCR products are passed through Capillary Electrophoresis. As labelled PCR products migrate through the gel towards the anode on the laser they separate based on their size. Fluorescence is measured from exciting a
The Lambda Protocol