Hosting the Olympics 2012
Extracts from this essay...
Hosting the Olympics 2012: Is it Worth the Glory? CONTENTS Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Media and political attitudes towards the bidding process and the subsequent developments Chapter 3 Physical structures: Architectural considerations, cost of building and how they fit into existing and future community development. Chapter 4 Financial Implications: Where does the money come from and how does this affect citizens? Chapter 5 Citizen's rights and freedoms Versus Security Chapter 6 Transportation issues Chapter 7 Anticipating the aftermath Chapter 8 Conclusion CHAPTER 1 Introduction This paper aims to explore the overwhelming challenges and opportunities faced by major cities when they undertake regeneration in order to host international sporting events. It will review the examples of cities like Sydney, Barcelona, Atlanta, and, in particular, London. Each of the cities required extensive local regeneration. The paper will focus on the planning and publicity of two heavily populated sites in the UK capital of London, both of which are the size of small towns, for celebration of international events - the Millennium and the 2012 London Olympics. London has taken on these challenges in the aftermath of another major infrastructure project, the Millennium Dome, which was deemed a failure by many. These two projects are irrevocably related, being similar in size, sharing a common transportation system (the Jubilee tube line), and requiring the regeneration of districts the size of small towns: the Greenwich Peninsula after years of toxic pollution from neighbouring gasworks, and the Olympics site in and around Stratford (in east London) after decades of urban neglect. The district between Canary Wharf and Stratford was seen, once the site had been chosen, as an important hub in the Olympics infrastructure which will now see an extensive rail network by 2012 that will have the capacity to carry thousands of spectators to and from the games as well as providing local residents with more comfortable and reliable transport options.1 The organisers of projects of this magnitude face enormous issues such as architectural requirements of new facilities, civil rights, security, transportation, media and political attitudes, and, of course, the enormous economic output.
Besides this, the development of the Ryde Pool, which was the venue for some preliminary water polo matches, caused the closing down of a public pool for two years and also converted part of a public park into a private leisure facility.26 The local government in Australia, which forms the third tier of governance, also complained that the views of local councils had not been taken into consideration adequately. The Auburn Council, which is one of the poorer municipalities in Sydney, suggested that its ratepayers had to suffer an unfair burden from the construction of the Sydney Olympic Park, which fell within its boundaries.26 In addition, the Mosman Council forum talked of the impacts of the Olympics and stated that 'local authorities have been largely locked out of the [Olympic] decision-making process' and 'have received very little information on key issues like anticipated transport flows' which are vital for 'the formulation of local transport plans' 27 Anti-Games lobbying helped Toronto probably lose the bid for 2008 Olympic Games. The city spawned one of the most prominent anti-Games lobbies called 'Bread not Circuses' which was a coalition of left and green groups who argued that the Games adversely affected the poor, the homeless and the environment. These activists also demonstrated that in order to pay for the Games money was taken away from the environment, health and welfare budgets where it was most needed. They argued that public money must much rather be on necessities (bread) instead of luxury sporting festivals (circuses). This lobby has now after the defeat of the Toronto bid shifted its attention to the Vancouver bid for the 2010 Winter Olympic Games. Internet is also becoming increasingly popular among anti-Olympic alliances to voice their Olympic critique. For instance, the Sydney based lobby used a website called PISSOFF - People Ingeniously Subverting the Sydney Olympic Farce. Then there is the IOCC Coalition - The Impact of the Olympics on Community Coalition - which was formed in conjunction with the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Bid.
23 Brunet, F., 2002, The economic impact of the Barcelona Olympic Games, 1986-2004, In de Moragas, M and Botella, M. (Eds) Barcelona: l'herència dels Jocs 1992-2002, Centre d'Estudis Olimpics: Barcelona. 24 Sydney Olympics 2000 Bid (1993): Sydney 2000 share the spirit. Sydney : Sydney Olympics 2000 Bids, vol. 3. 25 Booth, Douglas; Colin Tatz (1994): "Swimming with the big boys", Sporting traditions, vol. 11, no. 1, Nov., p. 3-23. 26 Owen, Kristy Ann (2001): The local impacts of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games: processes and politics of venue preparation. Sydney : Centre for Olympic Studies, UNSW. 27 Cashman, Richard; Anthony Hughes (1999a), Mosman Council: Forum on the Impacts of the Olympics: 24 October 1997. Sydney : Centre for Olympic Studies, UNSW. 28 Shipway, R. (2007) 'Sustainable legacies for the 2012 Olympic Games.'The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health 127(3):119-124 29 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crossrail 30BBC News, 10 May 2007, Crossrail gets the green light, news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/England/London/7029201.stm 31 BBC News, 10 February 2007, Crossrail funding gap plugged, news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/England/London/7024935.stm 32 Taylor, D., Sign Off, Construction News, 11 October 2007. 33 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thames_Gateway 34 Vigar, G., 2002, The politics of mobility, Spon Press: London. 35www.communities.gov.uk/thamesgateway/about/tgforum2008 36 HS1 Network statement -November 2008 37 www.railway-technology.com/projects/highspeedone 38 www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/media/newscentre/archive/4825.aspx 39 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratford_City 40 www.stratford-renaissance.co.uk/future-stratford 41en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canary_Wharf_tube_station 42 www.merouk.co.uk/structures/2000canarywharf.htm 43 www.cabe.org.uk/default.aspx?contentitemmid=1094&aspectid=23 44 Searle, Glen (2002): "Uncertain legacy: Sydney's Olympic stadiums", European planning studies, vol. 10, no. 7, p. 845-60. 45 Cashman, Richard (2002): Impact of the Games on Olympic host cities: university lecture on the Olympics [online article]. Barcelona : Centre d'Estudis Olímpics (UAB). International Chair in Olympism (IOC-UAB). [Date of consulted: 14/12/08] <http://olympicstudies.uab.es/lectures/web/pdf/cashman.pdf> 46 'A Lasting Legacy for London?: Assessing the legacy of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games, May 2007, Research commissioned by the London Assembly from the London East Research Institute of the University of East London 47 www.olympic.org/uk/passion/museum/permanent/coubertin/index_uk.aspCoubertin, 48 Online Britannica.com 49 Cook, T.A., 1909, The Fourth Olympiad London 1908 Official Report, London: British Olympic Association. 50 www.jesseowens.com 51 www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/munich.html 52 Gadher, D. & Pocock, I., 2007, Mocked Olympic logo 'evolves', The Sunday Times, July. 53 Wyatt, K., 2003, www.independent.co.uk/...Atlanta-bombing-suspect-arrested-542560.html 54 www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/joan-littlewood-643497.html ?? ?? ?? ??
Found what you're looking for?
- Start learning 29% faster today
- Over 150,000 essays available
- Just £6.99 a month
- Over 180,000 student essays
- Every subject and level covered
- Thousands of essays marked by teachers