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This review looks at several theories of management and leadership development and will critically analysis using relevant literature. Also included in this review is a focus on strategic human resource management and whether there is a link between huma

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Introduction

MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT Introduction Management and Leadership are two topics largely under scrutiny by theorists arguing whether they are the same thing, separate entities or if one cannot exist without the other, for example for effective management you need to be have leadership skills. This review looks at several theories of management and leadership development and will critically analysis using relevant literature. Also included in this review is a focus on strategic human resource management and whether there is a link between human resource management and the hiring of female managers. It also includes a look at strategic fit and analysis if it can help with the development of a business in the HRM department, whether it is effective or not. Even though there is literature that can cover numerous topics demonstrating different management theories, this review focus predominately on a smaller sub section of management which is women and their role in management. What this review mainly encapsulates is a negative attitude towards women and many hardships they face trying to compete with the dominant male population. It also reveals that although people feel there has been progression in equality in the work place this might not be the case in higher paid jobs. Management and Leadership Development To begin an immediate distinction of the two needs to be made as management and leadership development overlap throughout literature. Certain themes occur describing both however there are several key differences. Management development is focused around the improvement of training and managerial education with an emphasis on acquiring specific types of knowledge, skills and abilities, as well as the capability to problem solve, to enhance task performance in management roles (Baldwin & Padgett, 1994). ...read more.

Middle

conversely due to a lack of quantifiable evidence it would appear that this link is comparatively unconvincing in comparison to the relationship among internal HR practices. According to Mumford, Bedell-Avers and Hunter's (2008:397) hypothesis, women and men differ in negotiation intensity, and managers, whether intentional or not, allow these pay and promotion differences to continue. Non- coordinated HRM policies continually allows bias of managers and those hiring to negatively affect groups of employees. When managers have more freedom, in terms of less oversight and less discretion a manager receives from the organisation, the larger the opportunity for bias will appear. Women in Management As already mentioned, within the review there is an incessant dispute over the alleged differences between leadership and management. Yukl (1998) believe that management and leadership are different but interrelated concepts. According to Kotter (1996) a manager develops a plan whereas a leader creates a vision. Women and ethnic groups in executive and managerial roles or any senior leadership status have been found to be under represented (Townley, 1994) which is demonstrated in most literature and leadership research. Even though Townley could be deemed outdated by critics it is evident 18 years on that equality on management level has not been achieved and may never be. For years scholars have been debating which sex is stronger in management between the masculine or feminine approach to leadership (Orser, 1994; Bruni et al., 2004; Priola, 2004) with men dominating the board rooms around the globe with only 5 to 20 percent of directors of significant companies are women (Vinnicombe et al., 2008). ...read more.

Conclusion

Michael D. Mumford, Katrina E. Bedell-Avers, Samuel T. Hunter (2008), Planning for innovation: A multi-level perspective, in Michael D. Mumford, Samuel T. Hunter, Katrina E. Bedell-Avers (ed.) Multi-Level Issues in Creativity and Innovation (Research in Multi Level Issues, Volume 7), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.107-399 Morris, M., Miyasaki, N., Watters, C., Coombes, S. (2006), "The dilemma of growth: understanding venture size choices of women entrepreneurs", Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 44 pp.221-44. OECD. (2009). Gender and sustainable development: Maximising the economic, social, and environmental role of women. Orser, B. (1994), "Sex role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics: an international perspective", Women in Management Review, Vol. 9 No.4, pp.11-19. Priola, V. (2004), "Gender and feminine identities - women as managers in a UK academic institution", Women in Management Review, Vol. 19 pp.421-30. Townley, B. (1994) 'Communicating with employees', in K. Sisson (ed.) 'Personnel Management: A Comprehensive Guide To Theory and Practice in Britain', Blackwell Business, Oxford. pp.595-633. Vinnicombe, S., Singh, V., Burke, R., Bilimoria, D., Huse, M. (2008) ,Women on Corporate Board of Directors: International Research and Practice, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, . Wei, L. (2006). Strategic Human Resource Management: Determinants of Fit, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 14(2), 49-60 Winstanley, Diana & Woodall, Jean (1998). Management development: strategy and practice. USA: Blackwell Publisher Inc. p69. Wright, P.M., & McMahan, G.C. (1992). Theoretical perspectives for strategic human resource management. Journal of Management, 18(2), 295-320. Wright, P.M., & Snell, S.A. (1998). Toward a unifying framework for exploring fit and flexibility in strategic human resource management. Academy of Management Review, 23(4), 756-772. Yukl. G. A (1998). Leadership in organizations(4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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