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Adam faircloff commences at a convenient point of the failure of the reconstruction process after the civil war and triumph of white supremacy in the decade that followed.

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Adam faircloff commences at a convenient point of the failure of the reconstruction process after the civil war and triumph of white supremacy in the decade that followed. Fircloff 's writing indicated the struggle of black inequality in the period immediately following the triumph of the northerners over the south republics and the hopes and expectations of the Negro population in the aftermath of the civil war. There hope of freedom and equality before the law. The 13 thirteenth amendment and the recognition of Negro marriages,, their right to form families , to worship as they viewed fit, to acquire and hold property ,enjoy the freedom of movement but they soon realized that liberation would be empty without land ,legal rights and the right to vote in and atmosphere free from persecution ,Fircoff skillfully introduces the aspirations that black held through the period 1890 to 2000 and the inequality they suffered in gaining what was legally theirs at the hand of a militant and biased white population. Emancipation was nothing without independence and the Negro population quickly realized that and began organizing themselves into groups and association to ensure this. They began to distance themselves from the white population by forming their own churches and rejecting the limitations of the whites in laboring contact. Faircliff illustrated the circumstances that surrounded the fall of the reconstruction program with the assassination of President Lincoln and the appointment of the former slave holder vice president Andrew Jackson, this political situation undermined the reconstruction movement as He quickly reintroduced self government to the southern states. The introduction of Black codes helped to nullify the reconstruction movement as the legislature passed discriminatory laws, that place blacks under strict white supervision, the black codes expresses the determination of southern whites to define freedman of color as rural laborers with inferior right. The black codes convinced many republicans that the reconstruction process needed federal governance, along with race riots that were prevailing through the southern states during this time .The ...read more.


was according to Fairc,logh had a number of effects on on Black Americ .The first and was most notable was the great Migration to the Northern States he attributeds this to the ecnomic oppurtunites created by the outbreak of the war,industries that had previously excluded blacks ,opened their doors to them during the great war . Firclough maked the important point that though Ecnomic oppoutunity may have been a pull ffator in this migration politics played and influential role as he attributes thoiis to the fact of decades of oppession in the Southern Staes. He also notes that the war present a renewed effort at aggiatation,due to the racial segration in the military .This led to a more miltant attides as the blacks became more resentful to racial dicrimation at home so were the whites in their determination to blackes repressed.The migration resulted in a vicious blash by white America as they saw the black movement as a threat to their ecnomic security.Om July 2nd 1917 in Houston ,a brtual race riot insued that left 40 blacks dead and 8 whiteds dead, this illustrated the intensity of the tension in the migration process. There was clear miltary segration Fairclough draws referance to the fact that 80% of the blacks were assigned to labour battalions and comprised of 1/3 of the armys pick and shovel workers.He attributes this to the miltance in america on their return the bitterness of their discrimantion changed the poltical landscape and transformed black aspirations /This miltancy was captured by Jamican born Marcus Garvey leader and founder of the Unia The Universal Negro Improvement Association.The powers of DuBois and Garvey helped to transalated black aggitation internat an international affir. In the post world war senarion the NAACP began to gro w I the southern states The militancy manifested itself in the formation of labour unions and organized protest.The climate of the period after the great war was tense.The blacklash was even tenser Firclough describes the read summer of 1919 to emphasis this point in the racial tension within society. ...read more.


action and play a active role, because of the seeting up of a federal funded Voter Education Commitede in 19622..But acording to fairclough the stark relaties of poltical power was revelaed with the goverments refusal to aid agist the discrimanation of the state. Faiclough also speaks about the Albany movemet ,which attacked every facet ogf racial disrimantion ,demanding fasir employment ans an end to police brutality. And the desegregation of buses and the public areas..Its broard menber shp,militnt tactics ,comprehensive goals and alliance of local and outside leadeship made the movemt the first of its kind,and it profoundly influence the subsequent development of the civil rights movement. T.the movement stumble aalong it was and siabused the Civil Rights Movement ot its more romatic notions about nonviolence.The movement was faced by federal refusal to intervene anf the city of albany was granted and injuction aginst all demostrators. In Chapter 13 fairclought deals with 3 major incidents in black history that helped in changing the landscape of the civl rights movemnt .The first is the brimingham campaig against segreation,between apirl 3rd and may 8 th 1963 an attacke was lancehed at the segranationsit policieces of the state. ,protest and mass meetings were hel and Martin Luther King as well as 3,300 persons went to jail.On 10th march an agreement was signed by the city buisness leader with the promise of segragting the stores.Many of the leaders were not staisfies with this move but Birmaingham as one of the segreated cities in the south ,a little desergration amount to a lot.And the civil rights movemnt knew that if Birminham faltered so to would other cities .In a three week period of the birminghnam campaign ,campaigns spread scross many cities and the justice deparment recorded that 143 citis had agredd to some for of integraton.According to Fariclough Birmingham and its shock waves shattered that sense of normality and it banished the illuison that Southern balcks wer edoclie and apathetic and that tey would put up with segrgation indefinately. ...read more.

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