• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Adam faircloff commences at a convenient point of the failure of the reconstruction process after the civil war and triumph of white supremacy in the decade that followed.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Adam faircloff commences at a convenient point of the failure of the reconstruction process after the civil war and triumph of white supremacy in the decade that followed. Fircloff 's writing indicated the struggle of black inequality in the period immediately following the triumph of the northerners over the south republics and the hopes and expectations of the Negro population in the aftermath of the civil war. There hope of freedom and equality before the law. The 13 thirteenth amendment and the recognition of Negro marriages,, their right to form families , to worship as they viewed fit, to acquire and hold property ,enjoy the freedom of movement but they soon realized that liberation would be empty without land ,legal rights and the right to vote in and atmosphere free from persecution ,Fircoff skillfully introduces the aspirations that black held through the period 1890 to 2000 and the inequality they suffered in gaining what was legally theirs at the hand of a militant and biased white population. Emancipation was nothing without independence and the Negro population quickly realized that and began organizing themselves into groups and association to ensure this. They began to distance themselves from the white population by forming their own churches and rejecting the limitations of the whites in laboring contact. Faircliff illustrated the circumstances that surrounded the fall of the reconstruction program with the assassination of President Lincoln and the appointment of the former slave holder vice president Andrew Jackson, this political situation undermined the reconstruction movement as He quickly reintroduced self government to the southern states. The introduction of Black codes helped to nullify the reconstruction movement as the legislature passed discriminatory laws, that place blacks under strict white supervision, the black codes expresses the determination of southern whites to define freedman of color as rural laborers with inferior right. The black codes convinced many republicans that the reconstruction process needed federal governance, along with race riots that were prevailing through the southern states during this time .The ...read more.

Middle

was according to Fairc,logh had a number of effects on on Black Americ .The first and was most notable was the great Migration to the Northern States he attributeds this to the ecnomic oppurtunites created by the outbreak of the war,industries that had previously excluded blacks ,opened their doors to them during the great war . Firclough maked the important point that though Ecnomic oppoutunity may have been a pull ffator in this migration politics played and influential role as he attributes thoiis to the fact of decades of oppession in the Southern Staes. He also notes that the war present a renewed effort at aggiatation,due to the racial segration in the military .This led to a more miltant attides as the blacks became more resentful to racial dicrimation at home so were the whites in their determination to blackes repressed.The migration resulted in a vicious blash by white America as they saw the black movement as a threat to their ecnomic security.Om July 2nd 1917 in Houston ,a brtual race riot insued that left 40 blacks dead and 8 whiteds dead, this illustrated the intensity of the tension in the migration process. There was clear miltary segration Fairclough draws referance to the fact that 80% of the blacks were assigned to labour battalions and comprised of 1/3 of the armys pick and shovel workers.He attributes this to the miltance in america on their return the bitterness of their discrimantion changed the poltical landscape and transformed black aspirations /This miltancy was captured by Jamican born Marcus Garvey leader and founder of the Unia The Universal Negro Improvement Association.The powers of DuBois and Garvey helped to transalated black aggitation internat an international affir. In the post world war senarion the NAACP began to gro w I the southern states The militancy manifested itself in the formation of labour unions and organized protest.The climate of the period after the great war was tense.The blacklash was even tenser Firclough describes the read summer of 1919 to emphasis this point in the racial tension within society. ...read more.

Conclusion

action and play a active role, because of the seeting up of a federal funded Voter Education Commitede in 19622..But acording to fairclough the stark relaties of poltical power was revelaed with the goverments refusal to aid agist the discrimanation of the state. Faiclough also speaks about the Albany movemet ,which attacked every facet ogf racial disrimantion ,demanding fasir employment ans an end to police brutality. And the desegregation of buses and the public areas..Its broard menber shp,militnt tactics ,comprehensive goals and alliance of local and outside leadeship made the movemt the first of its kind,and it profoundly influence the subsequent development of the civil rights movement. T.the movement stumble aalong it was and siabused the Civil Rights Movement ot its more romatic notions about nonviolence.The movement was faced by federal refusal to intervene anf the city of albany was granted and injuction aginst all demostrators. In Chapter 13 fairclought deals with 3 major incidents in black history that helped in changing the landscape of the civl rights movemnt .The first is the brimingham campaig against segreation,between apirl 3rd and may 8 th 1963 an attacke was lancehed at the segranationsit policieces of the state. ,protest and mass meetings were hel and Martin Luther King as well as 3,300 persons went to jail.On 10th march an agreement was signed by the city buisness leader with the promise of segragting the stores.Many of the leaders were not staisfies with this move but Birmaingham as one of the segreated cities in the south ,a little desergration amount to a lot.And the civil rights movemnt knew that if Birminham faltered so to would other cities .In a three week period of the birminghnam campaign ,campaigns spread scross many cities and the justice deparment recorded that 143 citis had agredd to some for of integraton.According to Fariclough Birmingham and its shock waves shattered that sense of normality and it banished the illuison that Southern balcks wer edoclie and apathetic and that tey would put up with segrgation indefinately. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Fine Art, Design Studies, Art History, Crafts section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Fine Art, Design Studies, Art History, Crafts essays

  1. Was Chartism a failure

    The Chartist movement has been considered by many historians as a great success due to the fact that historically, Chartism was the first working class movement composed to a great extent involving a huge population. As J. West argues "the Chartist movement...

  2. Artists of the early 20th century Modernist era often denied any influence by African ...

    some attribute the birth of Cubism and a defining role in the course of modern art throughout the twentieth century. "L'art n�gre? Connais pas!" - Pablo Picasso, 1920 A sad testament to the naivety of Western society at the time, Picasso emphatically denied any influence of African art on Les Demoiselles ('African art?

  1. Documentary Photography. Focusing mainly on a comparison between photographers and their styles, this ...

    families endured, the two men spent a couple of months living among three families and recording daily life. Their work was never published for its intended purpose, although it finally emerged as a lengthy, highly influential and original book Let Us Now Praise Famous Men and subsequent exhibition.

  2. Free essay

    Discuss the process of female objectification through the works of Olympia [1863] by ...

    While in Analytic Cubism they were merely lifeless, sexless objects, Man Ray's "violin" gives the photo an erotic aura." Both historians then carry on and suggest that this is emphasised by the reference to the classicist painter Jean Auguste Dominque Ingres and his famous 'Turkish Bath,' where the central nude has her back to the viewer.

  1. 'The More You Know The More You See' with reference to Michelangelos 'The Creation ...

    He commented that perhaps the painting should be named 'the Endowment of Adam' as it could appear God is imparting knowledge to Adam. (Meshberger 1990.) My view on this is that perhaps Michelangelo, an incredibly religious but also scientifically aware man, was trying to show that intelligent human life was only truly created when we were first able to think.

  2. Educational policy lecture

    Lack of Entrepreneurship Education and Self-Employment Courses in the Curriculum Mr. Chairman, Distinguished Ladies and Gentlemen, vocational and technical programmes in the country seem to prepare students, both technically and psychologically, for wage-employment either in the modern sector or in government.

  1. Narrative: A History of Southern Miss

    Further north of campus stood the Presidents Home, which today is called the Ogletree House and is home to the Southern Miss Alumni Association. Three other buildings, Forrest County Hall, the Industrial Cottage, and Hattiesburg Hall, were also included in the original construction of campus.

  2. How influential was Jan Van Eyck?

    Van Eyck?s influence on Weyden is also apparent in Weyden?s altar piece of the Seven Sacraments were in respect to the depiction of architectural setting and spatial arrangement of the composition there is a strong affinity with Van Eyck's 'Virgin in the Church'.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work