• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent did the ideals of crusading in the fourteenth century differ from the previous centuries?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

To what extent did the ideals of crusading in the fourteenth century differ from the previous centuries? During the course of the fourteenth century I would suggest that many of the original ideals linked with crusading had been lost when compared with the campaign of the First Crusade in the late eleventh century. However, although many of the ideals associated with crusading had changed by the fourteenth century, there were still a number of ideals that remained consistent. In order to be able to establish the extent to which ideals did change, it is necessary to investigate the aspects of the crusading movement that not only changed but also those that remained. The morality of the Crusades had been brought into question and there was strong criticism over the validity of such brutality in the name of God. The deterioration of enthusiasm and of the recruitment process was significant, the success of future expeditions suffering as a consequence. The personal interests of those who took part and of those who were in charge of the Crusades were unavoidably different to what they had been in previous centuries and as a result the Crusading movement had to adapt to fit the changing attitudes. ...read more.

Middle

Many were disillusioned with the materialistic purposes of the movement and were unconvinced by the promises of spiritual repentance. The involvement of ecclesiastical and lay politics with the Crusades was not received well by the population. Little interest in the Holy War was aroused in England at this time and there was the circulation of a lot of criticism of the papacy. John Wyclif was one who launched an attack on the papacy, accusing the Flanders Crusade of abusing Papal power. Similarly, the poet John Gower complained about "the decline of chivalry and the absence of crusading zeal amongst members of the knightly class."4 It was believed that "the immorality and vicious behaviour of the crusaders further demoralised an already demoralised army."5 As a result of the diminishing morality those on the crusades began to lose sight of what they were fighting for and to an extent lost their sense of purpose. This idea that the differing ideals were reflected in the success of the crusades is illustrated in the fighting at Nicopolis and Antioch. During the First Crusade the Christians had the stern belief that they had God on their side and that he would see them defeat the infidel and this motivation encouraged them to victory. ...read more.

Conclusion

The crusades had lost sight of what they were intended for and instead of being a spiritual quest they had simply become an opportunity for self-gain and non-Christian activities. During the course of the fourteenth century people began to change their ideals and lose faith in a Holy War largely due to events such as the Black Death which had people questioning religion. People questioning the support of the papacy, lack of funding and tense relations between leaders all contributed to the development and in turn the change of crusading ideals. All this was combined with the fact that taking Jerusalem, which had been the drive and motivation behind the earlier crusades, had become seemingly militarily impossible therefore making the original motivation behind the crusade all but disappear. There were, largely due to propaganda, still a few crusading campaigns during the fourteenth century but these were small in size and lacked the drive and direction that had been present in the earlier campaigns. Although the practice of crusading remained therefore during the fourteenth century to an extent, the ideals attached to crusading were somewhat different. The Crusades pre-occupied medieval man for almost 200 years, from the end of the 11th century to close of the 13th. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Fine Art, Design Studies, Art History, Crafts section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Fine Art, Design Studies, Art History, Crafts essays

  1. How are consumerist ideals represented through the pop art works of Richard Hamilton, Claes ...

    The image of a woman is also taken from a pornographic magazine showing the commercialisation of sex. Women after further depicted in this traditional gender clich´┐Ż by the woman (or maid) with the vacuum cleaner on the stairs, stressing once again, that gender ideals played a big role within consumerist culture.

  2. Educational policy lecture

    I am also aware that some NGOs have also been undertaking similar exercises. When entrepreneurship education is made an integral part of vocational and technical programmes, similar competitions should be organised at the district level and assistance should be extended to graduates with promising business ideas.

  1. Identify and explore any three ways in which the Church affected the development of ...

    The first thing to notice about this painting is its clever use of symbols. The white lilies in the painting symbolise the 'immaculate' nature and virginity of Mary. The dove represents the Holy Spirit and is painted in an "emblematic or heraldic" manner that symbolises its importance.

  2. Cultural and Critical Studies : War Propaganda

    The use of negative space completely highlights Hitler, helping to convey the message that he is the "one Leader" and face of a campaign that will unite Germany and make her stronger. The composition of the picture has Hitler off centre, his gaze directed to the right.

  1. Cuban National Ballet

    population turned their backs on Alonso preventing a wider spread recognition and advance of the company. After the break in diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Cuba...it was not possible for Americans to see the Cubans dance in Cuba. They never came to the U.S., to which Alonso was denied a visa.

  2. Women Workers in World War One and Their Changing Roles

    The NUWSS suspended its suffrage campaign but split over the issue of women and pacifism".9 The choice to continue suffrage activity during the wartime was viewed by many to be unpatriotic. Those groups who supported the war by any mean possible made their cause more popular.

  1. To what extent was Mau Mau resistance against colonial

    opinion of the Mau Mau. More recently however, ex-members of the Mau Mau have been able to give their view of the Movement, and the events leading up to it. They, not surprisingly, represent the Mau Mau movement in a completely different light - as a freedom fight, struggling against political oppression, and as: "....

  2. Falun Gong - A practice wrongfully accused as a religion with malicious intent.

    Falun Gong movement members trust that focusing the mind on a visualized wheel spinning within the center of the body will allow for spiritual healing, which in turn will lead to biological healing (such as preventing and curing illnesses, provoking well-being and extending one's lifetime).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work