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University Degree: Islam

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  1. Islamic Law. These four schools are known as Hanafi, Maliki, Shafii and Hanbali and a closer look at them is essential to fully comprehend the Sunni faith. Finally, Ijma or the consensus of the community is very important to further

    Eventually, this gave rise to the four schools of fiqh (jurisprudence) which are very important in order to properly understand Islamic history and the present. These schools are closely interwoven like a quilt and are employed by Muslims to deal with matters such as politics, theology and daily aspects of life. These four schools set the foundations for Islamic jurisprudence and led to developments of various laws that were considered to be aligned with the Islamic teachings. Amongst the many laws developed by these schools were laws for women which were in accordance with Islamic teachings.

    • Word count: 3641
  2. Democracy and Islam - many scholars strongly believe that there is a direct coalition between Islam and democracy. This is evident when examining the concepts of social rights and equality, economics, divine sovereignty and shura law.

    If indeed wealth was to flow into the hands of a few, then social dislocation would occur. Therefore in order to avoid discrimination of wealth and property, it has been prohibited to accumulate wealth (Khatab and Bouma 2007). This is put into sharp focus after examining the Qur'an which states, "Woe to those who amass riches and sedulously hoard them, thinking that their wealth will render them immortal....they shall be flung to the destroying flame....it will close upon them from every side, in towering columns" (Qur'an 104:2-9)

    • Word count: 2698
  3. Modernization and Islam

    at one front they enjoy vast riches in the form of natural resources and at the same time someone trying to openly adopt Islam, Iman and Ikhlas in their purest forms is sure to be labeled an extremist and a fanatic. One wonders why it is so that when it was introduced, Islam reformed the Arab society into being a model for generations to come. And generations later, we have somehow failed to keep up with our past standards, while busy imitating western ideas to modernize and compete for global recognition once again like our ancestors.

    • Word count: 623
  4. Analysis of Islamic Scripture. Al-Baqarah Verses 8 - 18

    Through the use of a good sentence structure, a negative tone and an evocative parable, Allah has conveyed a very strong message against the munafiqin in verses 8 through 18 in Al-Baqarah. The structure of the passage really shows how discontent Allah is with the munafiqin. Verses 8 through 16 contain very short verses and these short verses indicate the abrupt and confrontational conversation that Allah is having with the munafiqin. Whenever Allah speaks to the munafiqin, the munafiqin respond with very short replies and this is an indication of how disrespectful and insincere they are towards Allah.

    • Word count: 1081
  5. Analysis of Islamic Scripture. Surah Al-Baqarah, Verse 260 One of the most fundamental precepts of many religions is belief in the unseen.

    In the Quran, we find several stories where Prophets have asked Allah to show them signs of the unseen realities. One such story is provided in verse 260 of Al-Baqarah, where Prophet Abraham asks Allah to demonstrate how He would resurrect people after their death. Upon reading this verse, many people may question Prophet Abraham's intentions and argue that it was the lack of his belief that led him to ask such a question. However, it can easily be shown through Abraham's preceding encounters, the words used in the verse, and the practical example shown to Abraham that the Prophet had full belief in Allah's powers, and had asked Allah merely for the sake of reassuring himself.

    • Word count: 2383
  6. Free essay
  7. American Conception of Islam

    They are not hidden but rather freed from objectification. Being a Muslim woman, I have experienced both worlds. I have been in the western world unveiled and in the western world islamicly, veiled. I would have to say I enjoy the life of the veiled Islamic women so much more. The sense of liberation you experience is beyond explanation. To be able to draw away from the western culture of how women are supposed to look and dress in order to be considered part of the norm is a truly a blessing.

    • Word count: 1075
  8. Analysis of Book "Being Muslim" by Haroon Siddiqui

    To shed light on the real Islam that is so wrongly portrayed in media today achieving this goal is questionable although he does attempt. He selects topics that are very popularly controversial and the most corruptly depicted subjects in Islam that media so commonly depict in a certain view. Haroon is known for touching on issues in a different lens than most authors would, he is one of the few journalist who would defend Islam in such an open manner.

    • Word count: 1637
  9. Discuss the role of the prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) in Islam. Consider in relation to the way the prophet was understood by his contemporaries and in modern society.

    The Oxford Dictionary of Islam describes Muhammad in the following entry: "Muhammad served as administrator, legislator, judge, and commander-in-chief as well as teacher, preacher, and prayer leader of the Muslim community. For the scholars of Islamic law he is the legislator-jurist who defined ritual observance; for the mystic he is the ideal seeker of spiritual perfection; for the philosopher and statesman he is the role model of both a conqueror and a just ruler; for ordinary Muslims, he is a model of God's grace and salvation.

    • Word count: 2371
  10. Evaluate the ways in which emotion might enhance and/or undermine reasoning as a way of knowing.

    In order to evaluate the question, three points of argumentation will be stated, analysed and then evaluated based on what the question requires. The first point of argumentation is related to belief and uses as reference the cartoons of Muhammad, the prophet, the second point of argumentation is related to interpretation and uses as reference the difference between women and men of feeling emotion and the third point of argumentation is related to love and how it may undermine or enhance reasoning.

    • Word count: 1247
  11. In what ways are Media representations of Islam a continuation of Orientalism

    Dividing the world into two unequal parts, the larger "different" one called the Orient, the other, also known as "our" world, called the Occidental or the West. (Said: 1997: p4) In general, but more specifically Orientalism is the study of Arab-Muslims and the Middle East. Western academic researchers and philosophers conducted theses studies during the Enlightenment period and beyond. Arguably, these researches are flawed for numerous reasons. In particular, the researches which were carried out are partial and biased because they were primarily prepared to demote Islam and to further the West's interests; in matters regarding politics, social, economic to forcedly impose on the Muslim world its own secular values.

    • Word count: 2396
  12. Muslim Women, throughout the centuries, have habitually been categorised, stereotyped, downsized and even degraded into a 'lower class', compared with the status of Muslim men. Through the personal translations of the Holy Qu'ran, the societal system d...

    On December 2, 1988 Benazir Bhutto became the first female Prime Minister to lead a predominantly Islamic-based nation-state. Her time in office in Pakistan proved to be controversial and received much criticism with little achieved in her first two years of leadership. Her party, the Pakistan People's Party (PPP), lost the elections in 1990 but Bhutto regained her power, with much more enthusiasm, in 1993 with the re-election of the PPP. Her father, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was executed in 1978 through his controversial conviction of 'conspiracy to murder'.

    • Word count: 2064
  13. ESSAY TITLE: "Was the Mahdi of Sudan in the 19th century a genuine religious figure or was he motivated by political aspirations?"

    We begin by analysing the claim he made to being "The Mahdi". To determine if he really was "The Mahdi" as described in Islamic fiqh, we fast forward to the year 1885, the year in which Muhammad Ahmad died. Four years after his declaration and without having fulfilled many of his so called "prophecies". This clearly shows that his claims lacked any authentic grounding, thus, proving to be a distinguishing factor in helping to determine the motivations behind such a revolt. If he was lying, which he clearly was, one could easily assume that he was motivated by political aspirations.

    • Word count: 1778
  14. When I ask people what world peace means to them,I rarely get a coherent answer. When I do, they generally express the same sentiment:

    Dictionaries also cannot begin to explore what a word means to different people based on their experiences. I once knew someone who worked as a peace keeper in Bosnia. He told me that his job description included disabling people who tried to disturb the "peace." He commented on how ironic this was, as he, by disabling people, was not actually being peaceful himself. He said that he had to break the peace in order to keep the peace. His definition of peace was one of organizations, religions, or groups of people that did not physically fight or hurt each other.

    • Word count: 1035
  15. While the spread of Islam extended, in theory the rights of women should have as well. However, Islam has not been able to protect global women

    The conditions of women before Islam were miserable and inhuman. The history of human civilisation testifies that the women, who gave birth to men as mothers, were humiliated, treated harshly and reduced to the position of being "a maid" rather than being a dignified woman. Furthermore, women were viewed as the embodiment of sin, misfortune, disgrace and shame, and they had no rights or role in the society. During the ignorance era "Jahiliyya" women were viewed as a thing or property, where they had no independence or power over issues relating to their well-being.

    • Word count: 2295
  16. During the prime of his glorious boxing career Cassius Clay courageously changed affiliation to embrace the Nation of Islam and became a Muslim despite the stubborn disapproval of sports media and harsh criticisms of his own country

    The Nation of Islam demanded change and advocating total separation of black and whites Americans. D. Muhammad Ali means "beloved of Allah." IV. Muhammad Ali has become increasingly involved in social status, diplomacy, and politics since his retirement in 1981. A. Through his organizations he provided leadership and is a role model for African American men and woman. B. He has since been slowed by a neurological condition related to Parkinson's disease. Conclusion: His accomplishments and fearless nature have earned him a singular place in history as one of the most inspiring figures of the twentieth century.

    • Word count: 1346
  17. In What Respect Did Muhammad'S Message In Medina Differ From His MessageIn Mecca

    As with many other of the world's religions, Islam evolved during and even after Muhammad's time. However, it can be seen that the core elements of his message remain constant. The most important of these, submission to Allah has been consistently fundamental as the term 'Islam' itself suggests, as it means submission in Arabic. There is much debate as to whether Muhammad's message in Medina differs from his message in Mecca and to what extent. Some scholars, such as Michael Cook, find that a "broad distinction"1 is necessary concerning his message in Mecca and Medina.

    • Word count: 2424
  18. Hafiz: A Drunkard?

    Items in poetry can be seen as not just things, but can be thought of as creations of God, derived from God, and ultimately self-manifestations of God. They are items in which He reveals hidden treasures of Divine Love. Thus, wine can represent not only itself (individual identity), but spiritual and sensual matters (divine reality), becoming a bridge from the visible world to the unseen. Becoming a metaphor ti relate to all audiences, wine allows Hafiz to speak of both love and Divine Love without explicit reference to the subject.

    • Word count: 2493
  19. Modern eastern western encounters have occurred on many an occasion over the last century and into the present.

    The eastern and western world have almost always been at odds on many a level, whether racial, religious, or plain ideological and so on, looked upon in many respects as a code of belief that has been systematically integrated in the greater psyche of the eastern and western mind, thus what it constitutes to be either. Something history itself lays witness to over all the conflicts that have been fought to sustain superiority of one over the other, to mention a few contemporary examples that irrefutably cannot be ignored are European Colonialism and American Imperialism that lay a living testimony to such a claim of hegemony.

    • Word count: 3436
  20. "The essence of knowledge is, having it, to apply it; not having it to confess your ignorance"-Confucius.* How do I know what I know? And why should anyone believe me?

    A lot of us derive our knowledge from the daily newspaper, it is the best source to derive information and until they can come up with a better and more convenient source I'm all for it. I know what I know through the fact that I make it to the next day. It's because of what I know I'm alive, because without knowledge or thought we would be lifeless objects. My brain tells me everything I know, my brain records everything I know, being able to right an essay on a complicated topic like this proves that I know what I'm doing and knowing something is knowledge.

    • Word count: 687
  21. An Interpretation on Number of Women Scientists in Turkey, Finland and Russia

    However, this does not imply that women had never dealt with scientific issues. Besides, there had been women since antiquity dealing with either masculine or feminine branches. For example, Eccello of Lucania is a mathematician and natural philosopher from fourth century B.C.; Abrotelia is a Greek Pythagorean philosopher from fifth century; lived in fourteenth century Catherine of Siena, a medical women and Gilette of Narbonne, a daughter of a physician, is a physician (Ogilvie and Harvey, 2000). Actually, science has been a matter for all people since it affects everyone's life and this fact is more understood in the last century, as more women is occupied in academics besides many men.

    • Word count: 1745
  22. Observations Tell All.

    taken and sold in slave markets in Cairo, they would be taken to sugar plantations in Cyprus and the would be sold to rich households in Italy. [Dunn, pp. 163 - 164] Slaves were often used as trading property or a form of gift giving, When he went to China a Muslim he had met years before in India was now rich. He owned about fifty white slaves and as many slave-girls, and presented him with two of each, along with many other gifts.

    • Word count: 833
  23. Gandhi and the Partition of India". New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Private Ltd. 1984.

    Chaudhri presents an extended overview of the process whereby India split into two nations. To compliment the process, he uses Gandhi as a gauge to measure and access failure and success in keeping India united. Through evaluating the Muslim League's campaign for a separate homeland, while analyzing varying plans and proposals for both unification and partition, Chaudhri outlines major proponents and antagonists for the split. I will discuss three major aspects of the book that I found interesting and reflexive of his biases. Firstly, his portrayal of M.K. Gandhi is short of a hagiographical biography of his efforts to keep India united as a "family."

    • Word count: 971
  24. What was the role of the Qur'an in shaping a distinctive scientific culture in classical Islam?

    The practical information already familiar to the Arabs and Berbers, wandering tribes and traders, simply allowed them to survive in the harsh landscapes of the Arabian Peninsula and Northern Africa...and concerned information on plants, animals and geology for example. Important also was the ability to locate waterways, caravan trails and oases. The stars they used to navigate the desert, to tell the time and to travel by. But "the emergence of Islam, the vigour of the Muslim conquest and the enthusiasm for exploring the intellectual riches of the conquered communities"1, propelled Muslims beyond the accustomed standard of "practical knowledge", they wanted more.

    • Word count: 1687

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Discuss the role of the prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) in Islam. Consider in relation to the way the prophet was understood by his contemporaries and in modern society.

    "In conclusion it has been the purpose of this essay to show how it is impossible to reconcile the enormous divergence that exists within the contemporary umma as well as the western responses to the role of the prophet. In order to reconcile the divergent views, the first pre requisite would be a return to the social context of the 7th century which would make those issues of Islamic law that are problematic in the face of the modern west no longer problematic, this was attempted in Afghanistan under the Taliban but never fully achieved. The folly in such an attempt is that it reduces the dynamic of Islam in relation to the rest of the world to earlier, bloodier conflicts such as the Sunni Shia divide that erupted again so violently in Iraq over recent years. Disagreement on the nature of the prophet and on what he said and did has been a part of the umma of Islam for the entirety of its existence and is bound to continue but I would suggest in closing this essay that increasing violence in the face of differences does not mean a return to a previous social atmosphere is either the answer or the problem."

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