• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The major effects, mechanisms and major side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the basis of the cardiovascular benefits of aspirin

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The major effects, mechanisms and major side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the basis of the cardiovascular benefits of aspirin Summary: NSAID's are used to reduce inflammation by inhibiting the production of the group of chemicals that promote inflammation. Prostaglandins are the group of chemicals that promote inflammation. They are produced by the COX-1 enzyme. Aspirin and Ibuprofen are examples of anti-inflammatory drugs. Aspirin has side effects associated with it. Examples of side effects include indigestion, heartburn and vomiting. The reason behind the indigestion side effect is because the prostaglandins are found in the stomach and when they are inhibited digestion is stopped as. An analgesic is a drug or medicine given to reduce pain without resulting in loss of consciousness. Analgesics are sometimes referred to as painkiller medications. Antipyretics cause the hypothalamus to override an interleukin-induced increase in temperature. The body will then work to lower the temperature and the result is a reduction in fever. Blood clots form when a blood vessel is damaged. A type of prostaglandin called thromboxane stimulates constriction and clotting of platelets. Conversely, PGI2, is produced to have the opposite effect on the walls of blood vessels where clots should not be forming. ...read more.

Middle

Analgesics are sometimes referred to as painkiller medications. There are many different types of analgesic medications available in both prescription and over-the-counter preparations. Examples of analgesic drugs include aspirin, acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib, and narcotic drugs including morphine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone (Vicodin). Analgesics may also be combined with other drugs in some types of medications (for example, analgesics are combined with decongestants and/or antihistamine in many over-the-counter cold remedies). Aspirin is used in low doses to prevent heart attacks and blood clot formation in people at high risk for developing blood clot. Aspirin can be bought over the counter without a doctor's prescription. (Spine-Health) Aspirin Because of the high availability of Aspirin, it is one of the most misused drugs. It has several modes of action. It interferes with pain signals to a part of the brain called the Thalamus. Aspirin also irreversibly inhibits chemical mediators of inflammation, which produce pain and further inflammatory reactions. These chemicals are released following tissue and cell damage. In addition, aspirin reduces fever by having an effect on the hypothalamus in the brain, which leads to vasodilation and sweating Side Effects: There a number of side effects associated with taking NSAID's. ...read more.

Conclusion

ibuprofen and diclofenac) is that it won't upset your stomach or cause it to bleed. A Paracetamol overdose is particularly dangerous because the liver damage may not be obvious for four to six days after the drug has been taken. Even if someone who has taken a Paracetamol overdose seems fine and doesn't have any symptoms, it's essential that they are taken to hospital urgently. An overdose of Paracetamol can be fatal. Ibuprofen Ibuprofen can be used to relieve pain and inflammation caused by rheumatic and muscular pain, headaches, migraine, back ache, period (menstrual) pain, pain after surgery and dental pain. It can also be used to relieve cold and 'flu-like' symptoms including fever (high temperature) in adults and children. Ibuprofen works by reducing the effect of irritant chemicals which are produced by the body as a response to inflammation and high temperature. Ibuprofen is available in tablet, oral liquid and effervescent granule form. (Ritter JM. Pharmacology) NSAID's are very useful because they reduce inflammation. They are very common and they are highly used. NSAID's should be used appropriately to avoid side effects and so that the best results can be gained from them. They should not be abused because using them in the incorrect manner will result in more serious diseases. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. laboratory equipment - Discuss the principles behind, and the use of - The Embedding ...

    to locate any alternations in them also this is not an application carried out in this particular laboratory. Fig.3 Faxitron machine The specimen requirements are slices or pieces of tissue or specimens in wax blocks. The sizes of the slices tissue can range from 10mm to 30mm approximately.

  2. The physiology of eating disorders.

    If this occurs the dentine is effected and eventually the pulp leading to acute pulpitus 8, 230 Oesophageal Continuos vomiting allows stomach acid to come into regular contact with the oesophagus as would occur in gastro oesophageal acid reflux disease. First this causes oesophagitis, inflammation, as the acid causes irritation.

  1. How does dietary status affect carcinogenesis?

    Further investigations regarding the potential anti-cancer activity of specific constituents of fruit and vegetables is required to optimise this method of chemoprevention, but for the moment we can conclude that a diet abundant in fruit and vegetables may give rise to a decreased risk of cancer overall.

  2. CD4+ Cell Development, Function & Dysregulation in Allergy and Autoimmune Diseases

    However, despite this obvious role of TH2 cells in allergies, and particularly in asthma, more cells direct the immunopathology than just TH2. For example, TH17 cytokines, such as IL-17, can be detected in metal allergies, atopic dermatitis and also in the sputum of non-eosinophilic asthma patients, along with neutrophils.

  1. Cardiovascular system and health promotion

    For this, they provide information on how to slowly build up an exercise plan in a safe way. The Department of Health (2008) also carried out a recent study that found for each portion of fruit or vegetables a day, it lowered the risk of coronary heart disease by 4% and the risk of stroke by 6%.

  2. Molecular targets of best-selling drugs (short review)

    Bupropion works by selectively inhibiting the neuronal reuptake of catecholamines (Noradrenaline + Dopamine). Noradrenaline and dopamine are the neurotransmitters responsible for moderating mood and other processes in the brain. Zyban is used to treat patients looking to quit smoking (with the aid of motivational support)

  1. The mechanisms which control the blood pressure within normal limits and how drugs can ...

    Blood pressure is then increased and restored to normal limits. Chemoreceptors play an important role in maintaining blood pressure. Chemoreceptors are found in similar places as the baroreceptors but are distinct from them. They are stimulated by a fall in the oxygen concentration or a rise in the Carbon dioxide levels.

  2. The clinical skill this reflective assignment will refer to is the measurement of blood ...

    to inflate the cuff while feeling for her pulse and observing the dial to note the level when the pulse could no longer be felt. Opening the valve fully quickly released the pressure in the cuff. The stethoscope I was going to be using was a communal stethoscope so I

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work