Scleroderma and Society
IB Biology Essay Scleroderma and Society Mimi You 42883 December 16, 2004 Gabbott You wake up in the morning and your body feels heavy and fatigued as if you've just run a marathon, and your joints feel like their burning, but all you've done is sit up on the bed. You find it hard to breathe and there is a painful, swollen sensation in your feet and hands that makes you feel as if they were about to burst and when you touch your face it feels stiff and unnatural. When you stand up off the bed and try to make it to the bathroom, within seconds you need to sit down again, the only way you can get around is by wheelchair. Today's a school day so you have to be efficient, put on your shoes which are a size too big because your feet get too swollen, brush your hair into a ponytail to try and hide thinnest areas, and get to class and listen as carefully as you can because your hands are so stiff and swollen you can't manage writing notes (Senécal, 1990), (Seibold, 1999), (Blau and Dodi, 1984). This is what a day in Ashley Looper's life is like, a teenage girl who was diagnosed with several forms of autoimmune disorders, including mixed connective tissue disease, lupus erythematosus, juvenile arthritis and scleroderma. Autoimmune responses occur when the body is not able to recognize it's own cells, which prompts the body to reject it's cells by producing antibodies for the
Serum Leptin Levels and Adiposity in Chinese.
Serum Leptin Levels and Adiposity in Chinese* *This work was financially supported by the Rockefeller Foundation of the United States and Natural Science Fund of Shanghai Secondary Medical University 98-11-25 SUMMARY Objective: To establish normal serum leptin levels in Chinese and to investigate the relationships between serum leptin levels and body fat, gender, age and androgen. Methods: Serum leptin levels were measured in 77 lean (BMI<25) and 28 overweight or obese(BMI?25) subjects by a RIA method. Results: The serum leptin levels in lean Chinese were 2.15?1.46ng/ml in male and 7.85?3.60ng/ml in female, which are similar to those of Caucasians, while in overweight or obese ones, the levels were 4.87?3.47ng/ml and 16.59?6.92ng/ml respectively, lower than those in Caucasians. A 2-3 times higher leptin concentrations were found in women than in men in both conditions. Even when the number of lean males were expanded to 79 subjects aged from 17-80, no significant leptin-age relationship was found. Despite 25% of obese subjects manifested a relative deficiency of leptin, as a whole, leptin levels in both men and women were significantly correlated with BMI (r=0.69, P<0.001 in male and r=0.63, P<0.001 in female). Conclusion: Serum leptin levels in Chinese lean people are similar to those in Caucasians and in both lean and obese groups, the leptin levels are correlated with
The structure and functions of body tissues.
UNIT 2 - Human Physiology Assignment 1 - THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF BODY TISSUES Histology is the name for the study of tissues. A tissue is a group of cells which forms a specialised function. There are many different types of tissue and one type of tissue may be found in many parts of the body. In the body we have four main types of tissue which are: * Epithelial * Connective * Muscle * Nervous All these different types of tissue are needed in order for the body to function. All of these tissues have different characteristics and functions. The first type of tissue to look at is: Epithelial Tissue There are 6 main types of epithelial tissue: * Squamous epithelium * Cubodial epithelium * Columnar epithelium * Ciliated epithelium * Compound transitional epithelium * Glandular epithelium Squamous Epithelium Simple squamous These are usually made up of thin flat scale like cells, which rest on the basement of the membrane. This type of tissue can be found in renal capsules of the kidneys, alveoli of the lungs and blood capillary walls. They are usually found in these areas as the thinness of the cells allows diffusion of materials through them. Therefore the main functions are to reduce friction, and to perform absorption and secretion. Stratified squamous Stratified squamous are made up of several layers of cells. They are like simple sqarmous cells
Electrocardiography and Blood Pressure measurement.
Electrocardiography and Blood Pressure measurement Introduction Background Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted on the cell walls of the blood vessels by the blood they contain. Blood pressure is measured with a sphygmomanometer, in millimetres of mercury (mmHg) this is a manual way of measuring BP, there is also a mechanical way. The mechanical tool for measuring blood pressure is called an automated blood pressure monitor; this automatically measures the subjects BP and heart rate at a touch of a button. The advantage of using the automated BP monitors is that it removes human error. Pressure is created by a portion of the body's blood being stored in the distensible aorta, which occurs due to the peripheral vessels not allowing blood to flow into the atrial system as fast as it's ejected from the heart. The heart beats approximately 72 times every minute, therefore each cycle lasts approximately 0.8 seconds. The cardiac cycle can be broken up into 2 phases; Systolic, which is the maximum pressure in the arteries during peak ventricular ejection and, Diastolic, which is the minimum pressure in the arteries immediately prior to ventricular ejection. Using systolic and diastolic pressure is how your blood pressure is calculated. Electrocardiography is the study of the electrical activity of the heart. This is done using an electrocardiograph (ECG). This records
Micro-Organisms and Microbes - the Causes of Disease.
Relate Living Conditions And Lifestyle To Spread A Disease! MICRO-ORGANISMS AND MICROBES -THE CAUSES OF DISEASE: Micro-organisms are tiny microscopic life forms that can cause disease. When disease is caused by microorganisms that are transmitted among different people it is called an infectious disease. Examples of these micro-organisms include: * BACTERIA * FUNGI * VIRUSES Bacteria: Bacteria are singe-cell micro-organisms that live in the soil, water organic material or the bodies of plants and animal including humans. Fungi: Fungi are microscopic plant-like organisms, an example is yeast. Virus: A virus is an organism that must infect another cell to survive and multiply and may well cause disease in humans. Bacteria and viruses may reproduce rapidly inside the body and may produce poisons(toxins), which make us fell ill. Viruses damage the cells in which they reproduce. A microbe is a broad term describing any small living organism and includes bacteria, virus and fungi and diseases are more likely to occur if large numbers of microbes enter the body as a result of unhygienic conditions or contact with infected people. The body has several methods of defending itself against the entry of microbes: * The skin acts as a barrier * The breathing organs produce a sticky liquid mucus, which covers the lining of these organs and traps microbes. * The blood produces
Rosiglitazone maleate: combating insulin resistance.
Rosiglitazone maleate: combating insulin resistance Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem across the world. By the year 2010 it is estimated that over 221 million people will be afflicted with the disease1. Type 1 diabetes is the result of absolute insulin deficiency and is treated through the addition of exogenous insulin. Type 2 diabetes, non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM), is characterized by a relative insulin deficiency and increased insulin resistance; it accounts for 90% of all cases of diabetes. Insulin resistance is the inability of cells to use insulin effectively which results in hyperglycemia even in the presence of adequate amounts of insulin. Insulin resistance contributes not only to diabetes, but to a plethora of other metabolic abnormalities including dyslipidemia, hypertension, and vasculopathy which are collectively termed the insulin resistance or cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome.2 Rosiglitazone, also known as Avandia, is effective only in the presence of insulin; its antihyperglycemic effect is the result of lowered insulin resistance in cells. Its development as a drug is described in this paper. Bioassay used to discover lead compound When GlaxoSmithKline started targeting insulin resistance in 1984 virtually nothing was known of the molecular mechanisms of insulin action, let alone what defects contribute to insulin
"What is known of the biological factors that underly the relationship between psychological stress and disease?"
Compulsory Coursework Essay Title Biological Psychology PS1060B Year 1 - Term 1 Joanne Watson Word Count: 1,516 "What is known of the biological factors that underly the relationship between psychological stress and disease?" It is ambiguous, and a matter open for much debate, as to whether disease is caused by stress or stress is an effect of disease. However it is clear from various research that there is a substantial link between the two and as our knowledge and understanding of the brain and it's various functions increases the answers about the causes and possible cures for stress may become more apparent still. Stress is a state of psychological tension caused by certain pressures or forces that are either physical or psychological in nature. For example prolonged exposure to the cold would cause physical stress to the body. Disease occurs when the body's immune system cannot produce enough antibodies to sufficiently combat an infection. The immune system is a collection of billions of cells, which travel through the bloodstream moving in and out of tissues and organs. They defend the body against foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria and cancerous cells. The stress response is the body's way of dealing with any form of stress by suppressing certain metabolic functions thus enabling other functions that deal better with stress to take over. A good example of
Laboratory heart experiment report.
Laboratory heart experiment report Introduction Background The time spent in the laboratory was dedicated for us to learn two important experiments on the heart and the aspects of the health and safety rules of being in the laboratory environment. The two experiments were; Taking a subjects blood pressure (B.P) reading with a sphygmomanometer and measuring a subjects heart rate (H.R) by using electrocardiograph (ECG). The reason for doing these experiments was to get the whole Sports, Health and Exercise group familiarized and comfortable using the EPIC equipment. The reason is that in the next three years of the course it is essential we are all able to use it confidently as we'll have to repeat these experiments in the future. The heart beats approximately 72 times every minute, and therefore each cardiac cycle lasts approximately 0.8 seconds. The cardiac cycle can be broken up into 2 phases; a period where the heart is relaxed, called diastole and a period of contraction, called systole. During diastole the atria fill with blood. The blood is prevented from entering the ventricles due to the atrioventricular valves being closed. However the rising pressure in the atria forces the tricuspid and bicuspid valves open, so that the ventricles begin to fill with blood. During this process, the semi-lunar valves that prevent backflow of the blood into the heart from the aorta
Types of tissue specimens I. Cytological - smear, scrape, brushing, washing or fine needle aspirate II. Biopsy (Bx
Anatomical Pathology - Lecture 1 * Pathology: a study of disease * Types of tissue specimens I. Cytological - smear, scrape, brushing, washing or fine needle aspirate II. Biopsy (Bx) - piece of tissue, trephine, punch specimen III. Whole organ - amputation or mastectomy, appendectomy IV. Post mortem samples, routine or forensic * Tissue preparation modes i. Routine paraffin blocks ii. Urgent surgical cases - frozen sections iii. Enzyme or lipid studies iv. Immunohitochemistry (antibody) v. Special tissue studies (kidney, bone, brain) vi. Electron microscopy vii. Cytology viii. In situ hybridization (DNA or RNA) * Chemical tissue preservation is used to i. Prevents tissue breakdown: autolysis, putrefaction ii. Increases firmness for handling iii. Retains tissue structure iv. Increase permeability for future chemical processing Chemical tissue preservation works: i. Denatures protein, breaking down autolytic enzymes, unfolding molecules ii. Disrupting internal bonds (H+ & 2S-) increasing permeability & leaving molecules to make new links with fixatives and dyes iii. Precipitating proteins and preventing loss during subsequent chemical processing Important factors of chemical tissue preservation i. pH (hydrogen ion concentration) ii. temperature iii. penetration iv. osmolality (critical for electron microscopy) v. concentraton vi. duration * Types
Shock Syndromes Shock is defined as an alteration in tissue perfusion that occurs at the cellular level.
Shock Syndromes Shock is defined as an alteration in tissue perfusion that occurs at the cellular level. Shock is a process that causes the eventual shutdown of all body systems in a systematic order. The final common pathway in all types of shock is the switching of cellular metabolism from aerobic to anaerobic. Anaerobic metabolism results in activation of the inflammatory response, decreased circulatory volume and decreasing pH. Three major classifications: . Hypovolemic 2. Cardiogenic 3. Distributive -anaphylactic shock -neurogenic shock -septic shock Hypovolemic Shock * Occurs when there is a significant loss of circulating blood or fluid, either by direct loss, or redistribution (third-spacing) * Most common causes are hemorrhage, burns and dehydration * May be seen when the total circulating blood volume has been decreased by 15-20% (approx. 500-1500 ml) Cardiogenic Shock * Occurs when the pumping action of the heart fails * Most common causes are myocardial infarction, cardiac trauma, cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure Distributive Shock * Occurs when blood vessels dilate without a subsequent increase in circulating blood volume * Blood volume is normal, but the vascular bed is greater in size Anaphylactic Shock * A profound hypersensitivity reaction with a systemic antigen-antibody