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What does an understanding of biological processes offer to psychological explanations?

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Introduction

What does an understanding of biological processes offer to psychological explanations? By studying the brain we can conceive hypothetical structures of personality making predictions of behavioural outcomes, through an outsider and insider viewpoint. Technological advancement can reveal brain abnormalities and understand the chemical activity of brain cells. Gaining a clearer understanding of psychological brain processes and their determents of behaviour. (Francis Crick 1994) a biologist claimed all psychological events could only be explained in brain activity. Social phenomena, explained in terms of genes and biology of the brain. Known as reductionism, it offers two theoretical approaches. Psychological phenomena could be explained through the framework of the basic sciences and simple principles such as stimulus and response associations. These brain sciences can be organised in a descending hierarchy with the more generalised at the top and the complex tapering at the bottom. (Bolton and Hill 1996), made a counter claim that many psychological phenomena cannot be reduced to physiological or biological terms. Psychology is concerned with processes, whereas physiology is structure. This eclectic approach leans towards biology and psychology being reciprocal. When brain and mind are combined they form an emergent property, something not evident when looking at components individually. Behavioural phenomenon arises from physical brain interaction and the minds interpretation of the social environment. The brain comprises of neural chemical pathways. Mind, is philosophical even spiritual.

Middle

In the aftermath Gage didn't inhibit much impairment in his speech or his intellect. Later, he became obstinate, capricious and egocentric. These findings led to the conclusion that emotional expression was controlled by this part of the brain. Evidently the damage had released the inhibitions controlled by the frontal lobe. The problem with this evidence is that it is isolated and uncontrolled and rarely limited to one specific part of the brain. In addition the damaged part of the brain may be superseded by another part of the brain. To summarise biology and psychology have a reciprocal relationship, there are some hardliners like Crick, who state the brain is solely responsible for psychological activity. Conversely Bolton and Hill repudiate reductionism and claim that psychology can't be just biology and physiology. Descartes claimed that there was a true distinction between brain and mind coined dualism and it was a stimulus that created a bodily reaction. Scientist have dispelled that theory but hold firm the analogy of stimulus transposed through chemical/electrical action to create a response. We have made a clear discovery that it the synapses shape our behaviour and abnormalities in this neuro transmitter provide proof that they are responsible for psychological disorders like schizophrenia. Prescription drugs can provide chemical therapy in the shape of Prozac for depression or obsessional neurosis. Non-prescription drugs like Cocaine, block reuptake of dopamine in the neural system leading to drug dependency.

Conclusion

Finally, Chile's results did not portray a good sample with a standard deviation of almost double the other two. The overall mean was recorded at 7.4 with a low CI of 5.1 and a high of 9.6, with a standard deviation of 1.05 and a standard error of 1.01 our 95% CI is quite large considering the scores range from 3 to 12. The reason for our CI to so large is that we have a small sample size however the other two samples were small and the CI in comparison was quite a short range. Error Bar Chart to represent correctly classified emotions on a TV programme From the graph plotted you can see a fraction of overlap a miniscule amount which doesn't lend itself to any explanation, concluding that the UK are more perceptive of interpretation emotion than the other two countries. However when we consider the Japan and Chile stats there is a in increase in overlap which leads itself to believe that there is not much difference when we consider the higher range of scores This anomaly could be down to the samples taken from different populations so the difference between the sample and the population means could be attributable to sampling error. However the larger the sample taken from the population the more likely that it will reflect the population accurately. Alistair Smith U205353X TMA 2 1 28/11/2008

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