Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4

Enzyme studies using acid Phosphate. This experiment will investigate the effect of pH on enzyme activities.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Enzyme studies using acid Phosphate Introduction: This experiment will investigate the effect of pH on enzyme activities. Enzymes are biological catalyst, made of protein and held together by peptide bonds. Catalyst accelerates the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy. The rate of reaction is dependent on several factors which include pH, temperature. Another dependent factor which is worth considering is the product and substrate concentration, which become a rate limiting factor at certain point during the catalytic process. Acid phosphatase is the name given to a general enzyme activity which is present in most eukaryotic cells. This enzyme hydrolyzes a phosphate group from a variety of natural and artificial substrates. The substrate for an acid phosphatase reaction must contain a phosphate functional group attached to another molecule through a chemical bond involving the phosphate and a hydroxyl (-OH) or alcohol functional group. The products of the reaction are the free phosphate group and the rest of the molecule with a free -OH group. ...read more.

Middle

Using a 10ml pipette measure out different amount of standard 200µM p-nitrophenol solution. It is important that all volumes are made up to 6mls with 0.1M of NaOH. The content of the test tubes should mix gently and after mixing, place it in the spectrometer and read at 405nm. After taking all the reading, a table should be drawn and a standard curve. In part B of the experiment, a total of sixteen test tubes is needed. A total of 8 tubes containing 5.5 ml of 0.1M NaOH should be set aside for a later stage of the experiment. Label the remaining 8 test tubes pH 3 to pH 8. Then Add 2.0ml of 2.5 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate to each tube. At this stage the test tubes should be placed in a water bath for 4 minutes, and to allow it to equilibrate at 37?C. After the stipulated time add 1.0 ml of distilled water to test tube one labelled pH 3 blank, this tube will used as the blank. ...read more.

Conclusion

0.0 0.196 3.82 41.21 40.78 4.54 3.09 8.46 Equation: y = 0.0138x + 0.1473, by using this equation I so able to substitute y which is the absorbance and find the p-nitrophenol concentration which is x. For example: y = 0.0138x + 0.1473 0.15 = 0.0138x + 0.1473 Therefore: x = 0.15 - 0.1473 / 0.0138 x = 0.196 µM Optimum pH = 5.0 (41.21µM) Discussion and Analysis: The experiment went according to the pre-set method, and the overall objectives have been achieved. In term results and data, when compared with other in class data, it seems that the general aims of the experiment have been achieved. A structural change in the enzyme was inevitable as the pH would alter the enzyme shape as well as the substrate. There was not much complication with the experimental methods; the only source of error identified is timing. A delay in the second part of the experiment could affect the results. The optimum pH was the main indicator of success or completion of the experiment; it is observable from the smooth curve graph that the optimum activity has been achieved. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Chemistry essays

  1. The objectives of this experiment are to synthesis 1-bromobutane from n-butanol under reflux setup ...

    ________________ ________________ Reaction under hot sulfuric acid: ________________ ________________ Reaction under cold sulfuric acid (More relevant to our extraction): ________________ ________________ N-butanol was protonated by the conc. Sulfuric acid and makes it soluble in aqueous sulphuric acid layer: Percentage Yield and Density The percentage yield of 1-bromobutane is 57.1% which

  2. Experiment 4 - Preparation and Reactions of Boric Acid, H3BO3

    Boric acid has trigonal planar molecular shape. The structure of boric acid is shown as below: 3) How do you convert boric acid to boric oxide? The boric acid is converted into boric oxide through heating. The boric acid will change into several different acids when bubbling the whole time.

  1. Determining the concentration of copper(II) ions

    The second trial was not a replication of the first trial; however the method was carried out exactly as planned both times. The electrochemical analysis was not replicated a further time because firstly, the Nernst equation calculation illustrated that the theoretical expected value of the 0.1 mol dm-3 was indeed the value obtained from the experiment.

  2. Food safety legislation

    Recommendations for Breaches of Legislation Breach of Legislation Recommendations EC Regulation 852/2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs, Article 6 (2) Annex J: Application form for the registration of a food business establishment Food business must register immediately with the Local Authority.

  1. Kinetics: The rates of a chemical reaction

    Temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy of a system, so higher temperature implies higher average kinetic energy of molecules and more collisions per unit time. A general rule of thumb for most (not all) chemical reactions is that the rate at which the reaction proceeds will approximately double for each 10°C increase in temperature.

  2. Synthesis and Isomerization of Nitro and Nitritopentaamminecobalt(III) Chloride, Linkage isomers.

    Reference (cm-1) 3281(s) ?as (NH3) 32894 3162(s) ?s (NH3) 31724 1587(m) degenerate ?as (NH3) 15894 1308(vs) ?s (NH3) angle deformation 13094 847(s) ?r(NH3) 8502 488(vw) ?s(Co-N) 488 (M-N)3 Balanced Equations: [Co(NH3)5Cl]2+ + H2O [Co(NH3)5(H2O)]3+ + Cl- [Co(NH3)5(H2O)]3+ + NO2- [Co(NH3)5ONO]2+ + H2O [Co(NH3)5ONO]2+ [Co(NH3)5NO2]2+ Theoretical Yields: [Co(NH3)5ONO]Cl2: * * = [Co(NH3)5NO2]Cl2: % Yields: [Co(NH3)5ONO]Cl2: = 51.7% [Co(NH3)5NO2]Cl2: Discussion: Both nitropentaamminecobalt(III)

  1. The two central objectives of this experiment are the production of Aspirin from esterification ...

    Stir and rub the walls can create uneven surfaces hence inducing crystallization (Manju Mehta & Bhupinder Mehta 2006). As such, in this experiment, 2.4 grams of salicylic acid should yield 3.13 grams of Aspirin, it is stated that acetic anhydride is in excess.

  2. The objective of this experiment is to determine how a buffer system resists large ...

    In general this is accomplished through the use of buffers, or solutions that resist a change in pH (DePaul 2009). Solutions which contain a weak acid (HA) and its conjugate base (A-) are called buffer solutions because they resist drastic changes in pH.

  • Over 180,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work

Marked by a teacher

This essay has been marked by one of our great teachers. You can read the full teachers notes when you download the essay.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review on the essay page.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review under the essay preview on this page.