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Research methods

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Research Methods Semester Two PART A: 1) The data collected in this survey is a quantitative piece of data. It is quantifiable, which means that the measurements can easily be translated into descriptive statistics, such as bar charts and means, and can be analysed using statistical techniques to produced neat conclusions. The data is high in reliability as the questions are standardised, which means that each respondent gets asked the same question, in the same order via the same method. Due to this it is possible to directly compare measures taken on different people or groups. It is also possible to see that the measure used does not vary wildly depending on different perceptions, but connects to a common 'reality'. Therefore it can be replicated again if needs be to produce the same set of results. The data collected is also from a representative sample, as it has been completed by 247 students, which is a large amount of the target population. However as it has only been carried out by research methods students from Sheffield Hallam University, so is only representative of them. This means the quality of the data is poor and can't be generalised to the larger population. To improve the representativeness in future years, they should carry out the survey on students from other subjects and universities in order to gain a more representative sample. The validity of the individual variables is however very low. Each individual has different opinions and beliefs. The data collected was quantitative and so is reduced to a numerical form and lacks meaning and beliefs. It therefore over simplifies reality and demand characteristics become a problem. This could be improved in future years, by asking more qualitative questions and therefore gaining beliefs and opinions from the survey to make it higher in validity. ...read more.


From the table I can see that the age with the highest number of smokers and non smokers is 18-21 year olds. This could be due to a greater number of this age range being available. However it is clear to see most categories have more non smokers than smokers. Whereas under 18's have 3 smokers compared to just 1. When looking at percentages this age have a higher percentage of smokers than other ages. It is clear that age does affect smoking behaviours as more under 18s smoke. Word Count- 150 Case Processing Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent How Old Are You * Do You Smoke? 207 83.8% 40 16.2% 247 100.0% How Old Are You * Do You Smoke? Crosstabulation Count Do You Smoke? No Yes Total How Old Are You Under 18 1 3 4 18-21 147 42 189 22-25 6 2 8 25-29 3 0 3 Over 30 2 1 3 Total 159 48 207 Part B The UK transplant, organ donating website for the NHS is a website aimed at getting people to sign up on the organ donating register and give their organs to the NHS when they die and no longer need them. In order to help save the lives of people who need organ transplants. The website is a community group aimed at giving information about organ donating and how to sign up to be an organ donor. The website also gives reasons as to why people should want to donate organs, and uses very persuasive language in order to do this. Anyone can sign up to be on the organ donating register no matter what ethnic groups they come from, or religious views they have, as none of the major religions in the UK object to organ and tissue donation and transplantation. ...read more.


This Donor card draws people in and makes them proud to own one, which in turn makes that person look very giving and caring of others and the world around them. The implied meaning the site is trying to give is that if you become a member of the NHS organ donating and are put on the organ donor register to give your organs and you will save lives. It is trying to get as many people to sing up on the organ donating register so that more lives can be saved throughout the world. As improved medical and science has allowed and made it safe to transplant almost any organ into a human body and it be successful in saving that person's life. The site also is trying to open people's eyes to see the huge amount of people who are around them and walking with them day in and day out that need transplants but who can't have them because not enough people are willing to give their organs when they die. It is a wakeup call as to how you as a person can help save someone's life or maybe even 2 or 3 peoples live. The organ donor website achieves its implied meanings by more lives being saved by transplants due to more people signing up to donate their organs after death. Without the site many people would be aware or even acknowledge that people need organs to stay alive when others don't. The website is a great way of raising awareness and getting people to donate. Word count- 1438 Reference part A Can G, Topas M, Oztuna F, Ozgun S, Can E, Yavuzyilmaz A. Journal of school health- Factors contributing to regular smoking in adolescents in Turkey, 2009. 3; 93-97. Blackwell Publishing Limited. Reference Part B NHS. Blood and transplant [online] available at: http://www.uktransplant.org.uk/ukt/ [last accessed on 22/04/2009] ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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