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The Renaissance began in Italy during the 1400s, a period of time called the Quattrocentro.

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Introduction

The Renaissance began in Italy during the 1400s, a period of time called the Quattrocentro. During the Quattrocentro, in the town of Florence, poets, painters, sculptors, and architects achieved some prominence, especially because of the patronage they received from the town's wealthy. Those people considered wealthy descended from respected soldiers (called condotteri), natural leaders, or wealthy ancestors. Florence's greatest economic success came from its part in the wool trade, which was imported from England, and spun into cloth around the Florentine countryside, and sold universally. In addition to this industry, Florence rose to prominence for three other reasons- the political structure in Italy, the Medicis, and the series of local artisans and writers that called the city home. Italy at this time was made up of five separate states, each vying with their neighbors for control over the countryside. Florence was able to remain neutral from many of these conflicts, yet engaged in combat when it was necessary. Cosimo de Medici was able to end most of the conflict in 1454 through The Peace of Lodi. This truce ended a war between Milan, Florence, and Venice. Establishing alliances within the trio created trust, and because Florence, Naples, and Milan had previously worked together, and Venice had a similar arrangement with the Papal States, Italy was able to enjoy a relatively peaceful existence until 1494. ...read more.

Middle

The painter was influenced by the teachings of Girolamo Savonarola in his later years, and his products were noticeably less inspired by grace and beauty. Rome regained her power and prestige in the years of the High Renaissance, the 1500s, or cinquecento. Attracted by the power of the Catholic Church and reborn strength of the Roman elite, artisans flocked to work in the capital. Politics remained the supreme interest of the Romans, but they still sought to have the best art that could be produced. Art in the 1500s Leonardo da Vinci was born in 1452 between Florence and Pisa. Leonardo's brilliance as a true Renaissance man is unparalleled. To achieve true accuracy for his work and his interests, Leonardo studied the ways in which the human body worked by dissection, and his scientific drawings of the inner workings of the body were extremely accurate. Besides painting, Leonardo also designed flying machines, a parachute, a helicopter, and other concepts unknown in his day, and unrealized until this century. Encouraged from an early age, he studied for ten years with a master sculptor, and was visited often by Botticelli. His career took him into the service of the Duke of Milan, where he painted The Last Supper for three years. ...read more.

Conclusion

When it came to supplying labor for the growing colonies and their associated profits, the Dutch, Portugese, French and English were the most active in the booming trade in African slavery, with the Soanish only getting involved in the late 18th century. Altogether, these European nations were resonsible for the enslavement of 60,000 slaves annually from the years 1740-1810. Most of these captives (approximately 80%) were sold off by fellow Africans as prisoners of war, or were debtors, murderers, thieves, or were guilty of crimes such as treason. (C. Palmer 67) As a result of the Treaty of Utrecht, England received the right to a monopoly supplying slaves to Spanish colonies in 1713. This contributed to the emergence of London, Liverpool, and Bristol as homeports for many slaveships, and Liverpool itself was home to over half of the English slave fleet. Slavers were involved in what was known as the "triangular trade," a series of stops in ports that brought huge profits for investors. In one leg, ships would load with rum to trade with slave traders in Africa and possibly some goods such as lumber, fish or grain for European ports, followed by a sail to Africa. There, the rum would be traded for new slaves, which were taken to the huge slave markets of the West Indies, where locally-produced molasses was exchanged, and then brought to American distilleries for rum production. English taxes on the trade brought in 40,000 pounds annually. ...read more.

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