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AS and A Level: Classics

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  1. Role of Greek Gods in The Iliad.

    In this way, it is very beneficial to a mortal if he has gods' power on his side. For example, in Book one, Khrysês, a priest, is not physically as powerful as Agamémnon or Akhilleus but when Agamémnon refuses to return Khrysês' daughter back, Khrysês succeeds in punishing Achaeans with Apollo's help: "Now when he heard this prayer, Phoibos Apollo walked with storm in his heart from Olympos' crest, quiver and bow his back, and the bundled arrows clanged on the sky behind as he rocked in his anger, descending on the sky behind as he rocked in his anger, descending like night itself"(Book 1, Lines 51-55).

    • Word count: 889
  2. Greek History - the status of the Helots in Sparta

    and a quantity of other goods such as oil and wine corresponding to the amount required by a Spartan warrior and his family. Somewhat surprisingly, the helots were allowed to keep any surplus beyond the required payment to Sparta. The type of servitude that was peculiar to Laconia and Messenia differed from its counterparts elsewhere in the ancient Greek world. A very important differentiation between the two is that the helots were essentially ?prisoners? (in the sense that they were controlled by an authoritative force)

    • Word count: 920
  3. Is Medea a villain or a victim?

    The concept of the household is key to understanding the extreme anger Medea feels at her replacement. She has already caused disruptions in two houses prior to the action in the play, but has judged these crimes to be worthy of her place in the household of Jason. The bitter irony, therefore, of her abandonment rests in the purposeful removal of familial ties which Jason seeks to affect on Medea when he delays to protest against her exile. We can therefore empathise with Medea in her choice of infanticide as the method by which to inflict not only the maximum emotional damage on Jason, but also the destruction of his ?house?.

    • Word count: 961
  4. How significant in Alexanders campaign to become king of Asia was the battle of Gaugamela

    According to the Roman historian Arrian, the Macedonian army numbered at around 40,000 infantry and 7,000 cavalry. Modern records put the Persian army at about 100,000 infantry and 34,000 cavalry, although Arrian says the Persian army numbered many times more than this. Regardless of the amount of troops at the disposal of the opposing generals it is a fact that Alexander was heavily outnumbered at Gaugamela, making his victory all the more impressive. Alexander?s supreme skill as a general, both in terms of tactics and leadership qualities were exhibited to their full in this battle. This was important as it maintained the strong loyalty of Alexander?s troops to him whilst increasing his reputation as an unbeatable enemy to the Persians.

    • Word count: 1183
  5. What is the role of Jupiters Prophecy in the Aeneid?

    would give birth to twins, sons of Mars, the Roman god of war. These, of course, were Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome. This does nothing but accentuate the divinity and honour of the Julian name, thus increasing the perceived worth of Augustus? blood ? it does not matter that he was adopted, due to the Roman belief that upon adoption it was no different than being born again into the family ? and so indirectly praises him. The prophecy goes further, praising Caesar, Augustus? adoptive father ? ?....there will be born a Trojan Caesar to bound his empires by Oceanus at the limits of the world, and his fame by the stars.

    • Word count: 1399
  6. The Sources from Xenophon and Isaeus show very similar male attitudes towards Athenian women. How far do you agree?

    The argument of nature is then used as he compares his wife to a 'queen bee' who never leaves her hive just like an Athenian woman can rarely leave her home. Finally he explains that tradition and custom are another reason for women and their roles in Athenian life detailing that it has always been the way of life and therefore always will be. To a certain extent this view of women as housewives whose roles are simply just to look after the home and children is most probably shared by the majority of the male dominated Athenian society.

    • Word count: 868
  7. Internal and External Conflicts in The Odyssey

    After a certain period of time of roaming the island, Eurylochus finds and discovers the goddess Circe's palace. The internal conflict within Eurylochus begins at this ver moment when he realizes that he has the choice to either enter the palace or not. Eurylochus wonders whether him deciding to enter the palace would benefit him and his men or be of grave danger. Eurylochus finally decides to enter the palace but taking all the chances of danger into consideration and take precautions. Unfortunately, the men dispatched with Eurylochus are all turned into swine by the vile and treacherous goddess, Circe.

    • Word count: 1505
  8. In the Apology, Socrates is able to defend himself against the claim of corrupting the youth mainly by attacking Meletuss basis for even having this trial

    Because Meletus has never shown concern for this subject before Socrates assumes that it seems all the Athenians except for him make the young people fine and good. If the previous is true then Socrates questions do people in general improve the young, whereas one particular person corrupts them or makes them worse?

    • Word count: 386
  9. Lessons Learned From The Illiad

    Achilles was very angry because he thinks that Agamemnon is too inconsiderate and selfish. After a fiery argument, Agamemnon finally sent Odysseus to bring back Chryseis to her father and to please Apollo, ordered a sacrifice. However, he commanded there be a substitute for Chryseis. He thought that as a forerunner, he could do as he pleases. Then, with force, he took Achilles? war present, Briseis, to substitute for Chryseis. This embarrassment clearly made Achilles mad. Achilles prayed to his mother, Thetis, and inquired for her power to restore his honor.

    • Word count: 624
  10. Homer. What is meant by the term 'Oral Composition'?

    This meant that the poet had to remember a lot to be able to successfully relate each story. The poet would not memorize the entire tale, but would rather compose as he went along, adding in certain memorized phrases, including epithets such as ?Swift-footed Achilles?, which could be repeated whenever a similar event came up, such as the preparation of a meal or the description of a person.

    • Word count: 396
  11. Do I think the system of judging the plays in Ancient Athens was a good one?

    To choose the judges, each tribe put names of citizens into a sealed urn. There were 10 tribes, each named after a mythical hero. They were: Erechtheis ? This tribe was named after the eponymous hero Erechtheus who was an early King of Athens, he was killed by Poseidon. Aegeis ? Aegis was named after the hero Aegeus who was another early King of Athens, and the father of Theseus. Pandionis ? This tribe was named for the hero Pandion, who, once again, was an early King of Athens.

    • Word count: 420
  12. Comparing Herodotus and Thucydides

    There are many other examples in their writing to show the amount of detail they use to show their points. Although, there is also one main difference in their writing, Herodotus does stick to the point most of the time in his writing, although, he does sometimes have the odd digression, usually about geographical locations. Thucydides, on the other hand, usually gets explaining something, but ends up saying something completely irrelevant to what we need to know. An example of this is when he starts praising Themistocles when he doesn't really need to.

    • Word count: 882

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