• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Air Pollution.

Extracts from this document...


POLLUTION ASSIGNMENT The word "Pollutant" means a substance that pollutes, i.e. a chemical or a similar substance that is produced as a waste product of an industrial process. Pollutants are any substances that under the excessive quantity in a wrong place at a wrong will cause impurity to the living environment. Pollutants can be chemicals, ashes, sediment, organisms heat, radiation etc; which if exposed to the living environment will cause bad effects. There are so many types and causes of pollution some more serious than others. Here are some examples with explanations about why they are so serious, how they effect the environment and what can be done to prevent the environment becoming over polluted. AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is an indication of disturbances to the composition of compounds in the atmosphere, this can be summarised: * Excess emission of gasses/vapours into the atmosphere. * Saturation of chemical compounds/particulates. * Rate of dissipation ? (smaller than) rate of absorption through various cycles (i.e. carbon and nitrogen cycles). * Emergence of new chemical reactions of reactive and non-biodegradable compounds. Global warming, acid rain, smog, O-Zone depletion are some of the effects caused by air pollution. In relation to this, we may observe the cycles that are apart of daily lives: the Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles. These two cycles are the most important of all, as they regulate the composition of carbon and nitrogen of the Earth. ...read more.


Solvent Evaporation * Vaporization of complex organic solvents that are non-biodegradable (i.e. non-methane organic compounds: ethane, ethylene, aldehydes and ketones). * Production of strong un-pleasant odour (i.e. lubricants and paints). * Organic vapours reacting with chemical compounds in atmosphere, which acts as an insulator around the Earth, thereby producing greenhouse effects (i.e. methane and carbon dioxide). Fuel Production * Fractional distillation of crude oil to produce kerosene, gasoline and refinery gas by the cracking process (Pyrolysis) involves the use of high heat energy at 450?C splitting larger alkane molecules into smaller alkane and alkene molecules which are more easily vaporised and are therefore more useful fuels. * Fuel extraction, processing, refining and distribution add an additional 14% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. * 30% of hydrocarbon emissions are released through evaporation, which occurs from fuel tanks and gasoline tanks. Roadway Construction * Manufacture of construction equipment comparable to the degree of pollution produced by auto manufacturing. * Asphalt fumes which are bothersome and toxic, involve the release of both particulate benzenes (C6H6) - soluble organics and individual aromatic hydrocarbons. Electrical Components Manufacturing * Process of making semiconductors involves the usage of hazardous heavy metal (i.e. arsenic and lead). * Emission of toxic by products into rivers and the atmosphere (i.e. sulphates, nitrates and sulphides). Extraction of Metals * Extraction of pure metal involves the heating of coke (carbon) ...read more.


* Dissolves into water sources, which affects the aquatic ecosystem. Thermal Pollution Sources * Drawn from rivers and lakes to be used as coolants in factories and power plants. Methods * Warmer water returned to rivers and lakes will alter the species make up of the aquatic ecosystem. This will introduce infectious organisms that are adaptable to warmer temperatures, which will alter the composition in the lake or river. * Level of oxygen in water sources will be reduced, threatening the aquatic ecosystem that will lead to the death of many species and it will also turn the water murky. SOIL/LAND POLLUTION Soil or land pollution involves the following mechanisms: * Deposition of solid waste. * Accumulation of non-biodegradable materials. * Toxification of chemicals into poisons. * Altering of soil chemical composition (Imbalance of chemical equilibrium to soil medium). Due to the vast amount of this type of pollution happening globally everyday it is threatening the very foundation and mechanical support of every matter on earth. Statistically, it has been shown that we are losing: * 6 million hectares of land per year. * 24billion tons of soil per year * Plus a minimum of 15 million acres of prime agricultural land to over use and miss management. * Desertification of land results in the loss of 16 million square miles of the worlds land surface. The causes for such devastation are generally due to 2 forms of malpractices: 1. Unhealthy soil management. 2. Improper irrigation practices. Here are the major land polluters with methods and sources of which they pollute. Agriculture * ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Environmental Management section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Environmental Management essays

  1. I am going to research waste pollution. I have chosen to research waste pollution ...

    a compactor vehicle collects the materials from the kerbside from 7,000 households, from the 45-ltr box provided to the residents. There are currently over 65 recycling bring sites. The borough also supplied compost bins to residents at a subsidised price from April 1995 to September 2002.

  2. Atmospheric Pollution – an Environmental Law Essay

    the condition of our earth from deteriorating to such a dismal point. Our structural interventions in capitalist economy do not appear without merit, albeit sometimes unnoticeable. 4.3 It was stated by Al Gore31 in his book ' Earth in the Balance': ''Modern industrial civilisation is colliding violently with our planet's ecological system.'

  1. Contemporary issue assignment

    that have historic and cultural importance and so have marketing value which imported exotics do not have. (A report on the WTO 2001) 2.3 Social-cultural impacts of tourism on the Maldives The socio-cultural impacts of tourism is manifested through an enormous range of aspects from the arts and crafts through to the fundamental behavior of individuals and collective groups.

  2. Air Pollution.

    Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds, metals, acids, and ozone are serious threats to most vegetation. The plants absorb the pollutants through their leaves. The leaves can develop holes, become discolored or will wilt. This can lead to death for the plant.

  1. Formation and effects of acid rain.

    This is still only a short-term solution. The long-term solution would be for all the nations to reduce consumption of fossil fuels by using energy more efficiently and cost-effectively by recycling all industrial products. b. Some countries might be more willing or unwilling to solve the problem of acid rain,

  2. Ozone (O3) is an allotropic form of oxygen with three atoms in each molecule. ...

    Ozone is possibly the most powerful antibiotic, deodorant and sanitizer known. The uses of ozone in different areas are shown below: Area Action of ozone House or workplace * Neutralise the chemicals in cigarette smoke such as tar, soot, vinyl chloride, benzene and hydrocarbons * Breaks down dangerous gases emitted

  1. Environmental Audit Assignment: The Company that I am analysing is BP (British Petroleum).

    as the link in the chain of authority between the shareholders and the group chief executive. In addition, they acknowledge the dual role played by the group chief executive and executive directors as both members of the board and leaders of the executive management.

  2. Smog is a kind of air pollution and is caused by a mixture of ...

    Due to this fact photochemical smog is considered to be a problem of modern industrialization.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work