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Air Pollution.

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Introduction

POLLUTION ASSIGNMENT The word "Pollutant" means a substance that pollutes, i.e. a chemical or a similar substance that is produced as a waste product of an industrial process. Pollutants are any substances that under the excessive quantity in a wrong place at a wrong will cause impurity to the living environment. Pollutants can be chemicals, ashes, sediment, organisms heat, radiation etc; which if exposed to the living environment will cause bad effects. There are so many types and causes of pollution some more serious than others. Here are some examples with explanations about why they are so serious, how they effect the environment and what can be done to prevent the environment becoming over polluted. AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is an indication of disturbances to the composition of compounds in the atmosphere, this can be summarised: * Excess emission of gasses/vapours into the atmosphere. * Saturation of chemical compounds/particulates. * Rate of dissipation ? (smaller than) rate of absorption through various cycles (i.e. carbon and nitrogen cycles). * Emergence of new chemical reactions of reactive and non-biodegradable compounds. Global warming, acid rain, smog, O-Zone depletion are some of the effects caused by air pollution. In relation to this, we may observe the cycles that are apart of daily lives: the Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles. These two cycles are the most important of all, as they regulate the composition of carbon and nitrogen of the Earth. ...read more.

Middle

Solvent Evaporation * Vaporization of complex organic solvents that are non-biodegradable (i.e. non-methane organic compounds: ethane, ethylene, aldehydes and ketones). * Production of strong un-pleasant odour (i.e. lubricants and paints). * Organic vapours reacting with chemical compounds in atmosphere, which acts as an insulator around the Earth, thereby producing greenhouse effects (i.e. methane and carbon dioxide). Fuel Production * Fractional distillation of crude oil to produce kerosene, gasoline and refinery gas by the cracking process (Pyrolysis) involves the use of high heat energy at 450?C splitting larger alkane molecules into smaller alkane and alkene molecules which are more easily vaporised and are therefore more useful fuels. * Fuel extraction, processing, refining and distribution add an additional 14% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. * 30% of hydrocarbon emissions are released through evaporation, which occurs from fuel tanks and gasoline tanks. Roadway Construction * Manufacture of construction equipment comparable to the degree of pollution produced by auto manufacturing. * Asphalt fumes which are bothersome and toxic, involve the release of both particulate benzenes (C6H6) - soluble organics and individual aromatic hydrocarbons. Electrical Components Manufacturing * Process of making semiconductors involves the usage of hazardous heavy metal (i.e. arsenic and lead). * Emission of toxic by products into rivers and the atmosphere (i.e. sulphates, nitrates and sulphides). Extraction of Metals * Extraction of pure metal involves the heating of coke (carbon) ...read more.

Conclusion

* Dissolves into water sources, which affects the aquatic ecosystem. Thermal Pollution Sources * Drawn from rivers and lakes to be used as coolants in factories and power plants. Methods * Warmer water returned to rivers and lakes will alter the species make up of the aquatic ecosystem. This will introduce infectious organisms that are adaptable to warmer temperatures, which will alter the composition in the lake or river. * Level of oxygen in water sources will be reduced, threatening the aquatic ecosystem that will lead to the death of many species and it will also turn the water murky. SOIL/LAND POLLUTION Soil or land pollution involves the following mechanisms: * Deposition of solid waste. * Accumulation of non-biodegradable materials. * Toxification of chemicals into poisons. * Altering of soil chemical composition (Imbalance of chemical equilibrium to soil medium). Due to the vast amount of this type of pollution happening globally everyday it is threatening the very foundation and mechanical support of every matter on earth. Statistically, it has been shown that we are losing: * 6 million hectares of land per year. * 24billion tons of soil per year * Plus a minimum of 15 million acres of prime agricultural land to over use and miss management. * Desertification of land results in the loss of 16 million square miles of the worlds land surface. The causes for such devastation are generally due to 2 forms of malpractices: 1. Unhealthy soil management. 2. Improper irrigation practices. Here are the major land polluters with methods and sources of which they pollute. Agriculture * ...read more.

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