"International Airlines Hit by European Unions's CO2 Emissions Plan" Bearing in mind that this article is comprehensive, coherent and fluent, the written account is inclusive and demonstrates an apparent connection with Section 2.4 Market Failure and sets up a close relation with the two sections in particular; negative externalities1 and the possible governmental responses concerning the quandary given, which in this case proposes a European Commission draft proposal requiring all flights arriving at or departing from the European Union airports to buy permits for their carbon dioxide emissions. This article is effective for the internal assessment because it does not dive into the economic theory, but introduces many notions that can easily be absorbed into economic presumptions and then be analysed. The extract portrays about how the advantages and disadvantages of using pollution permits, how effective they are and how several European companies are learning to deal with the more stringent regulations of the EU on pollution as a result of global warming. Pollution permits, are certain amounts of CO2 which are allowed to be emitted by companies in during production. These are given out by the respective governments to the companies, who can also purchase further permits from other companies who don't need all their permission to pollute. 2 The draft proposal which will
EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THEORIES PRECLASSICAL CONTRIBUTORS Laid the groundwork for subsequent, broader inquires into the nature of management. · Robert Owen: He laid the groundwork for the human relation movement. He was the one who realized the importance of human resources and emphasized on improving the living conditions of the employees. · Charles Babbage: known as the " father of modern computing". He introduced the concept of work specialization i.e. the degree to which work is divided into various jobs. · Henry R. Towne: realized that management techniques could be applied factories. He outlined the importance of management as a science and called for the development of management principles that cannot be used in all types of management situations. CLASSICAL VIEWPOINT A management approach that emphasizes the total organization and ways to improve overall effectiveness and efficiency. Have three approaches: Scientific Management: A management perspective that focuses on the rational scientific study of work situations to improve efficiency. · Fredrick Winslow Taylor: he came up with time and motion study. The study involves breaking down the work tasks into various elements or motions, eliminating unnecessary motions, and determining the next way to do a job. · Frank & Lillian Gilbreth: He also proposed motion studies to
How and why is the climate of the inner city area different from that of the suburbs? Examine the impacts of industrialization and urbanization on the human health and how these impacts could be reduced to a minimum.
How and why is the climate of the inner city area different from that of the suburbs? Examine the impacts of industrialization and urbanization on the human health and how these impacts could be reduced to a minimum. Microclimate in inner city area is different from that of the suburbs. Inner city area experience urban heat island that is temperature is high in inner city. Waste products and chemical wastes and pollution generated by industrialization and urbanization adversely affect human health. Urban heat island means that the temperature is highest in city center, and diminishes outward to periphery and drop markedly in suburb. There is a temperature gradient from city center to suburbs. The difference is the great during night and there is radiation loss. There are many factors leading to the urban heat island. First, is the heat generated by industrial activities like power deriving driving machines, heat system, combustion, ventilation system and human movement. The combustion of fossil fuels produce greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. These pollutants especially CO2 are good heat absorbers. The artificial heat produced by the industrial activities is trapped and the temperature is high. Second, the tough and high-rise buildings themselves reflect, absorb and radiate the heat to the ground. Therefore, the heat is trapped.
Wind farms are widely recognized as the new movement of change for power supply, which is taking place around Ontario for a greener environment. Lately, there have been heated debates between the citizens of Scarborough and the government of Ontario regarding the idea of putting up a wind farm at the Scarborough Bluffs. Nevertheless, it is obvious wind farms should not be erected at the Scarborough Bluffs if one was to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the situation at hand. Through a thorough investigation on wind turbines and the Scarborough Bluffs, it is evident that there are many reasons to assemble a wind farm, although the consequences of the ruined Bluffs and the complications of wind generators overpower these reasons. Wind farms are a large grouping of wind generators or wind plants, which are located at a site with strong, dependable winds. Wind generators are machines which convert wind into energy from the current of wind hitting the rotor or the blades. They are usually considered to be a leading source for a greener economy or environment. This is the movement which is taking place for the future. According to this movement, the future is destined to be green because there will be no more greenhouse gases and the goal is to inevitably stop global warming all together. The Scarborough Bluffs is a high steep bank which is the result of erosion from
To what extent can the principle of sustainability guide land use policy development? The idea of developing in such a way that the present can meet their needs without future generations needs being compromised is not a new one. It has been practiced and continues to be practiced by many groups of people across the world. For example, this principle is embedded in Aboriginal beliefs that they come from the land, and must return to the land and so must be custodians to the land. The Brundtland Commission, chaired by the Norwegian prime minister, brought the concept to the foreground where the famous definition of sustainability was given. This essay will discuss the idea of sustainability, how the principle first emerged in policy, and what potential it has in the future development of land use policy. As the basis of all human activity, land is important in achieving sustainability and as such it is essential to focus on the planning and regulation of land use change. However, in order for this to take place the objectives of a policy must be certain before it can be implemented. Some people would argue that there is no need for government as market forces will lead to the best outcome in terms of total welfare. This has led to sustainability as a principle being described as a 'problem'1 which conflicts with such short term purely economic views. It is also said
Do the benefits of using fertilisers for improving Plant productivity outweigh the implications To the environment?
Do the benefits of using fertilisers for improving Plant productivity outweigh the implications To the environment In my point of view I think that fertilizers are of use to the environment in some ways but can also be potentially damaging in others. The term fertilisers is stated as " A substance usually added to soil to increase its ability to support plant growth" by Encarta. This shows that fertilisers are needed to keep soil in good conditions to allow the maximum productivity for plant growth. This is why they are important to the agricultural industry because they allow maximum productivity and higher yields, meaning more money for the farmer. But fertilisers can also be potentially hazardous to the environment; they can pollute local water supplies, harm humans and animals and can add to the amount of volatile gases being added to the atmosphere. Firstly fertilizers are potentially good for the environment in ways that they improve the soil structure and nutrient content, this therefore improves plant growth. Fertilisers are needed to allow a farmer to have maximum productivity in the crop that they are growing. So they are vital for economic reasons to allow the most productivity the land can give, (high yield) so the most money can be got from selling the high yield amount of crops. Also fertilisers help the condition of the plants to be top condition by
AMAZON QUESTIONS LOCATION AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Where is the Amazon Rainforest, ie its country and continent? The Amazon is one of the world's great rainforests. The Amazon river runs 3,000 miles from the Andes to the sea, and is longer than any river but the Nile. The vast Amazon basin covers more than two and a half million square miles, more than any other rainforest. The Amazon spreads across much of South America. Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil and Venezuela all have Amazonian regions. 2 How big an area does it cover? The amazon rainforest covers approxiamately 1.2 billion acres. This would be able to cover britain many times over. 3 What is the area's physical geography, eg climate and relief? The amazon is a wet, green land rich in plant life. The tropical climate is tempered by the heavy rainfall (exceeding 150 in./381 cm annually in parts of the upper and lower regions) and by high relative humidity. The Tropical Rainforest is a forest occurring in tropical areas of heavy rainfall. It is abundant with many species of wildlife and vegetation. Rainforests cover less than two percent of the Earth's surface. They are home to some 50 to 70 percent of all life forms on our planet. Rainforests are the most productive and most complex ecosystems on Earth. The tallest trees and are usually over 50 metres tall. The Kapok tree is an example of one of these.
Introduction In this report I will discuss the Built Environment and its impact on Natural Environment by means of a case study of Glasgow and its suburbs. Also identify the current challenges to the Natural Environment and suggest strategies to manage these, so that current and future Development becomes Sustainable. Firstly, it is necessary to define Natural Environment, Built Environment, Sustainable Development and Climate change. * Natural Environment: The natural environment, generally referred to simply as the environment, it is also a term that comprises all living and non-living things that occur naturally on Earth or some part of it. A complete landscape units that function as natural system without enormous human involvement, including all plants, animals, rocks and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries. A geographical area is regarded as a natural environment if the human impact on it is kept under a certain limited level. This level depends on specific context. General natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear boundaries such as air, water, climate , energy, radiation, electric charge and magnetism not originating from human activity. * Built Environment: The phrase built environment refers to the manmade surroundings that provide the setting for humane activity, ranging from the large scale civic surroundings to the
The Ozone a Hole in the TheoryThe protective ozone layer around our world undergoes much thought and debate. The "Hole", however, only exists in the minds of environmental
The Ozone a Hole in the Theory The protective ozone layer around our world undergoes much thought and debate. The "Hole", however, only exists in the minds of environmental, self-serving scientists and politicians. It interests many to find all the faults in the publics consensus of the "ozone depletion." Most scientists do not believe in this "depletion", they think it is a natural phenomenon. Ozone gasses come into view as consideration over what gasses are actually accused for this awful crime of destroying the ozone. But what do these invisible murderers really do (or don't do)? Some actually think that these cursed elements of air help rather than hinder the earth! Volcanoes put yet another damper on the ozone theory. Can humans actually over power volcanoes and other natural causes? The most debated of the gasses, Fluorocarbons (CFCs), now come into view. What of the controversy of 1947? The flaws in the CFC theory overshadow its relevance. Even though no decisive proof exists major coun! tries in the world will ban CFCs in the year 2000 due to the Montreal Protocol. What exactly does this banning entail, and how will it affect us? Environmentalists insist that because of the "depleting ozone" harmful ultra-violet (UV) rays seep through the ozone causing UV and cancer levels to soar. How seriously can the populous take these claims? One alleged problem that goes hand
'The loss of tropical rainforests is the most crucial ecological issue of our time.' CATHERINE CAUFIELD, AUTHER OF 'IN THE RAINFORESTS. The Background. a Large areas of the Amazon Rainforest have already been removed, there is an estimated 20% been cut and burnt down. This problem can be caused by many different reasons. The Amazon is such a central area for worry because it contains over 50% of the world's natural rainforests and if it is destroyed then the ultimate scenario is world devastation. Circumstances that make people feel the need to cut down rainforests cause people to go about it in different ways. The ways in which they go about it can be classified as either sustainable or non-sustainable. Unfortunately most practices that go on in the rainforest are non-sustainable and can cause long- term damage to them. The reasons for the deforestation are very complicated. It is a vicious circle. Here are some of those reasons: THE RAINFOREST IS RICH IN RESOURSES. The rainforest covers a large amount of land and under its surface there are many natural resources such as gold, oil, natural gases, coal and iron, tin and bauxite ores. As these types of resources are becoming scarce in other parts of the world and the Amazon is rich in them, people are moving to the Amazon to mine them. Opencast mining is often used; this causes large areas of devastation as the