Photochemical smog and its production is a reason that is causing wide concern.
OXFORD CAMBRIDGE AND RSA EXAMINATIONS CHEMISTRY (SALTERS) Lawrence Johnson OPEN BOOK PAPER Photochemical smog and its production is a reason that is causing wide concern. It happens when primary pollutants, which are air pollutants that enter the atmosphere directly from things such as motor vehicles, power stations, industry and domestic sources, interact under the influence of sunlight to produce secondary pollutants. Secondary pollutants are therefore atmospheric pollutants that are created chemically when primary pollutants and other components of air react. The main primary pollutants emitted as a result of motor vehicles are Nitrogen oxides (NO?) hydrocarbons(C?H?), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Sulphur oxides (SO?). The main secondary pollutants formed as a result of vehicle emissions are Ozone (O?) and peroxyacetyl nitrate) H O. (1) Coal fired power stations are another way in which primary pollutants are emitted into the air and thus contribute to the production of photochemical smog. This is because the outputs as a result of fuel combustion are things such as NO? gases. The emission of these nitrogen oxides occurs as flue gases from burning the coal contain oxides of nitrogen. In the combustion of coal the nitrogen compounds are oxidised to form the fuel NO?, which is a primary pollutant.
Environmental Audit Assignment: The Company that I am analysing is BP (British Petroleum).
Environmental Audit Assignment From: Petra Belo To: Eddie Pargeter Hand In Date: 12/12/03 Course: BA Marketing Management Abstract: The Company that I am analysing is BP (British Petroleum). British Petroleum Company PLC Public Company Incorporated: 19909 as Anglo-Persian Oil Company Employees: 118,050 Sales: £41.71 billion (US$80.51 billion) Stock Exchanges: London, New York, Toronto, Tokyo, Paris, Zurich, Amsterdam, Frankfurt Company History British Petroleum (BP) is one of the worlds leading oil companies, and one of the United Kingdoms largest corporations. The company, which was the pioneer of the Middle Eastern oil industry, having discovered oil in Iran before World War I, is now engaged in all aspects of oil exploration, production, refining, transportation, and marketing. It has significant interest in chemicals and plastics, including a range of specialty products- mostly detergents, advanced composite materials, and advanced ceramic engineered materials. The new BP The new BP has a long and exciting history that goes back more than a century. The company is made up of four companies, each with its own proud history: BP, Amoco, ARCO and Castrol. These histories are so often intertwined, that coming together as one company makes a great deal of sense. It's the power of one. Bp BP's origins date back to May 1901, when a wealthy Englishman, William
Environmental Issues. The condition of the environment is a worldwide issue. Air and water pollution do not recognize borders; poor soil conditions in one nation may reduce another countrys food supply.
The condition of the environment is a worldwide issue. Air and water pollution do not recognize borders; poor soil conditions in one nation may reduce another country's food supply. At the same time, different regions do face different problems. One key distinction is between the environmental threats faced by developed nations, such as the United States and western European countries, and developing nations, such as India and Mexico. Most agree that these nations may have dissimilar crises, but debate remains over whether the solutions to their problems are unique as well. The environmental problems faced by developed nations are largely the result of their economic strength and higher standards of living. Overconsumption is cited by many observers as a cause of resource depletion in the First World. Americans, and to a lesser extent western Europeans, Japanese, and other residents of developed nations, are more likely to own one or more cars, purchase more food and clothes than subsistence levels require, and use considerable amounts of electricity. Americans consume a disproportionate amount of the planet's resources. The United States is home to 5 percent of the world's population but uses 25 percent of its resources. Overall, the developed world has 23 percent of Earth's population but consumes two-thirds of the resources. Environmentalists contend that this high level
Isolation Tank - The story of a ‘mystical’ device for the exploration of the human consciousness.
Isolation Tank The story of a 'mystical' device for the exploration of the human consciousness. Human evolution can be described as a constant expansion of our consciousness, physically by reaching new places and mentally by exploring different realities. These explorations have offered us the knowledge to develop from the primitive, unarmed creatures we were, to today's 'wise' men who are able to predict and to some extend control the forces of the nature. During the 20th century humankind have reached physically into space as far as up to the moon and mentally explored within its own self in depths never reached before. The story of the Isolation Tank (IT) is a story of a device created to explore new realities within our brain never experienced before. This essay gives a brief definition of what the IT is and the historical framework in which it was created. Furthermore, it is discussed whether people do experienced different, unfamiliar realities through the IT as early studies on IT have supported, or whether the 'bizarre' experiences recorded in the IT where a myth as more recent studies suggest. Finally there are discussed some of the main applications that the Isolation Tank has today. Even before defining what the IT is, it is more important to know why it was created. In the 1950's the IT was initially created in order to answer a fundamental question in
The Environment: Whose Responsibility?
Laura Smith 10th February 2001 11CHi The Environment: Whose Responsibility? It has been only in the last few decades that the global community has realized that we have the responsibility to deliver a clean and peaceful planet to our future generations. It has been only in the past few years that the global community has begun to take this realisation seriously and move from theoretical commitments to the actual implementation of corrective measures to change polluting and destructive practices and activities. As we move into a new century, and millennium, the global community is running out of time. Clearly the implementation of measures to achieve sustainable development must be increased and accelerated. This is especially the case with respect to preventing the release of toxic substances and hazardous waste generation, without which sustainable development will remain merely a dream. taken from greenpeace.org So somebody has to take responsibility for the environment and try to push for global sustainability. Who should it be? There are four main groups of people who could be held accountable for the environment : The natural assumption may be that the governments of the world have responsibility for the environment. Surely we put our trust in our governments in the hope that they will appreciate the true value of the environment and that they will deal
Name a local corporation that proclaims it has implemented green management policies.
Name a local corporation that proclaims it has implemented green management policies. Describle what it has done and critically comment whether its green management policies are appropriate. Answer: KMB, is the largest bus operator in Hong Kong. It aims to provide efficient and comfortable bus service everyday. Then, environmental protection for KMB in Hong Kong is a must to do and it has implemented various measures aimed at both improving the performance of its buses and contributing to a cleaner environment. Since 1992, KMB introduced the Euro I bus engine, and up to 2001, all new buses were equipped with the Euro II engine. After 2001, new buses were installed the environmental-friendly Euro III engine. Compared with the Euro I and Euro II engine, the Euro III engine reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulates by 28% and 33% respectively. Except from the exhaust emission generated, KMB developed the Eco-Driveline system which incorporating basic mechanical change to bus design, improves efficiency, and it can reduce exhaust in a low-speed running environment. In the exhaust emission part, KMB is already put a lot of investment and working on it and having research and develop direction to solve the mechanical design problem, it is appreciate that we know a Hong Kong bus company which is not only to buy new technology from other country, but also to develop its
Contemporary issue assignment
Edexcel/BTEC HND Travel & Tourism Management Contemporary issue Individual assignment Zonova Anna TT1 Alpine Center 2008 Contents Introduction..............................................................................1 . Tourism in Maldives ...................................................................1 2. Impacts of tourism on economy, environment and social-cultural...............2 2.1Economic impacts of tourism on the Maldives............................,2 2.2 Environmental impact of tourism on the Maldives.......................4 2.3 Social-cultural impacts of tourism on the Maldives......................6 3. Suggestions for the future to protect the Maldives............................................9 4. Conclusion ........................................................................................................10 References For a tourism-based economy to sustain itself in local communities, the residents must be willing partners in the process. Their attitudes toward tourism and perceptions of its impact on community life must be continually assessed. (Allen et al. 1988) Introduction I have been approached by a tourism organisation to assist in researching the current and potential impacts of tourism development in a destination. I chose the Maldives because they have an impressive record of growth, while at the same time rapidly
The Rainforest Climate
The Rainforest Climate The rainforests are the wettest of the vegetational zones of the world. A rainfall of 100 mm in a month is considered to be dry in a rainforest. Rain usually falls in short downpours during mid-day, after which, the sun shines once again, causing all the rain to evaporate again. The temperatures in the rainforests do not vary appreciably throughout the year. For instance, on a particular site in the forest of Java, the mean temperature was found to be 24.3 degrees Celsius in February and 25.3 degrees Celsius in the month of October. On cloudy days, only negligible variations in temperature are observed. However, when the weather is sunny, temperature variations of up to 9 degrees Celsius have been recorded. The foliage can heat up to 10 degrees Celsius above atmospheric temperature. The elevated levels of atmospheric humidity lead to the formation of dew on the vegetation, and this serves to reduce the temperatures of plants . Naturally, the flora are well adapted to thrive in the hot temperatures typical of these regions. Some of the plants keep transpirational losses to a minimum by the possession of a thick, waxy cuticle or by the closure of their stomata. The thick canopy of trees only allows little sunlight through. In fact, only about 0.5% to 1% of full sunlight reaches the forest floor. Indeed, a value as low as 0.1% has been
Is Brent Dealing Adequately With Its Environmental Problems?
Brent is a Subject to a lot of environmental problems, but is the government actually doing anything to solve these problems? Is Brent Dealing Adequately With Its Environmental Problems? Brent is located in London, which is found in the South East Part Of England (Map 1) London is made up of many boroughs; Brent (Map 2) is in the North West part of London. Brent is divided into three parliamentary constituencies (Map 3): Brent East Brent North Brent South There are 31 wards in Brent, I live in the St Raphael's Ward in Brent South. Brent was established in 1965 by the re-organisation of London's Government. The Borough's Wembley and Willesden were joined together and named after the river that had previously separated them 'The River Brent.' Elections were held every 4 years to elect 66 local Councillors to govern Brent. Evidence shows that Brent was severely damaged in the Second World War. 2000 homes were destroyed and big efforts were produced to rebuild and repair these buildings. Wembley concentrated more on new council estates and by the 1960s/70s new housing estates replaced old homes. A vast number of factories were closed down to be replaced by office blocks. Brent was well on its way to improvement. By 1965 Brent was faced with the problems that were handed down from previous predecessors. These included Housing, Education, Social Services, Refuse
Examples of coastal areas where there is a lot of conflict of interests are the sandy coasts of Glenelg, and also the Port Adelaide Estuaries. The Adelaide coastline is highly developed with houses and roads occupying a large proportion
"Describe the reasons for conflicts of interest in coastal zones, and discuss the management strategies relating to conflicts of interest in at least two coastal locations." Coasts range from the rocky shores and sandy beaches to extensive calm water mud flats, seagrass and mangrove habitats. Coastal and marine environments are a valuable community resource and are of great biological and economic value to the area. Coastal areas are very complex eco-systems which rely on a number of different processes and systems. Humans are constantly disrupting these processes by developing and taking part in recreation in coastal areas. Alterations can have harmful results and disturb the dynamic equilibrium of the natural processes that occur there. Therefore there is now a need for constant human input into coastal systems in order to artificially maintain them. This creates a lot of conflicts of interest between groups about what should be done about the problem in terms of the sustainability of the environment versus our societal need. Examples of coastal areas where there is a lot of conflict of interests are the sandy coasts of Glenelg, and also the Port Adelaide Estuaries. The Adelaide coastline is highly developed with houses and roads occupying a large proportion of the original dune system. Development along the coastline, particularly in Glenelg, has had many detrimental