• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

'Analyse the measurements of desertification'

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

6 (ii) 'Analyse the measurements of desertification' "Drought and desertification threaten the livelihood of over one billion people in more than 110 countries" warned general Kofi in 2001 (Kovach,2003). Desertifications definition is highly disputed but it is generally the shift of arid or semi-arid regions to desert-like conditions, which support: little vegetation, a low soil fertility and high evaporation rates (Haggett, 2001). This work will overlook how deserts are measured by a variety of different means. To measure the growth of deserts characteristics need to be obtained. By creating set indicators for deserts the spread of desertification can be gauged. Climate (Anderson,2001) is one of the larger indicators of the spread of deserts: as you can see from appendix 1B, the worlds deserts are in general located in and around the equatorial region and the tropics. ...read more.

Middle

roots and nutrient cycles (Sharma,1997). National monthly rainfall index (NMRI) (UN) is used to measure monthly changes in precipiatation, weighjted against the yearly averages (UN, 2004). Also the local flora and fauna act as indicators of desertification: vegetation cover allows biologists to define weather the areas flora is decreasing in number (UN,2004) and thus potentially allowing for land degradation to set in (the forerunner to desertification). Also the types of vegetation in potential risk areas is important: the appearance of xerophytes indicates that there is little groundwater, also the appearance of halophytes would indicate higher than average soil salinity and perhaps the onset of soil salinisation (Saouma, 1993) ...read more.

Conclusion

Word count: 489 Saouma, E. (1993), Sustainable development of drylands and combating desertification, http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/v0265e/V0265E02.htm Friedman, S. M. & Friedman, K. A. (1994), Desertification backgrounder, http://www.lehigh.edu/~kaf3/books/reporting/desert.html Anderson P, Gaseb N, Hoffman T and Klintenberg p. (2001) A3. From Community Perceptions to Remote Sensing: Methodologies Used for the Assessment of Desertification in Southern Africa, http://www.drfn.org/des2002/module3.html. Sharma K. D. (1997) The hydrological indicators of desertification, Journal of Arid Environments, 121-132, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6WH9-45J560X-2G-1&_cdi=6845&_user=122866&_orig=browse&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1998&_sk=999609997&view=c&wchp=dGLbVlz-zSkzV&md5=7d34d4ad0bd36d0a9c7db80a26e152db&ie=/sdarticle.pdf Pullen, S. (2004) The Desert biome, http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome/deserts.html Carstanjen, H (1992) Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought, http://www.unccd.entico.com/english/chapter12.htm#d Division for sustainable devt. (UN) (2004) Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought - Indicators, http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/indisd/english/chapt12e.htm Berrahmouni, N and Burgess N. (2001) Sahara desert, http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/pa/pa1327_full.html Kovach, K and McGuire B (2003) Guide to Global Hazards, Philips, London Haggett, P (2001), Geography - A Global Synthesis, Prentice hall ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Atmosphere & Weathering section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Atmosphere & Weathering essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Discuss the relative importance of physical and human factors in accounting for changes to ...

    5 star(s)

    The climax community of this colonisation is scrub woodland such as sycamore and hawthorn. This is due to shrubs being shaded out due to increased competition for enriched soil. Urban ecology highlights how human factors account for some changes in the vegetation in the ecosystems of the British Isles.

  2. Peri-glacial areas

    Loess refers to deposits laid down by the outblowing winds, consisting mainly of unstratified, unconsolidated silt that covers extensive areas. c) How do peri-glacial environments present a challenge to human activity With 20% of the earth's surface being Peri-glacial, it poses a diverse range of challenges regarding human activity.

  1. Acid rain study

    These man- made sources increased dramatically during the 20th century, due to rapid population growth in which people required more energy and more fossil fuels were burned and more power stations were built for this purpose. The development of new materials and products, which can improve our lifestyle, are also polluting such as improved cars and aerosols.

  2. Climate in different cities around the world

    Clothes Wear light-coloured clothing; wear long trousers and long-sleeved shirts so you can avoid the sun and getting bitten by mosquitoes, but try not to wear too much clothing, as the climate in Brazil is very high. The climatic conditions in Brazil can have an effect on the travel operations.

  1. WHO IS TO BLAME FOR DESERTIFICATION?

    This is usually due, as in the Sahel, to increase population pressure which increases the demand for food and so pressure on the farmers to produce more. Forests and wood land is cleared for a variety of purposes, to create agricultural and pasture land for example, but it might be

  2. Distinguish between the processes of erosion and weathering in an area undergoing glaciation.

    Therefore, glacially eroded landforms have impacted human activity, leading to management programs. For example Juneau, in Alaska, has a high avalanche risk. Many houses and businesses lie in the direct path of known avalanche routes and thus the various management schemes as seen above were discussed, and some put in place to protect the now habituated area.

  1. Geography: Desertification.

    There were antelope, elephants, buffaloes etc." "Villagers used to hunt many wild animals such antelope, monkey, fox, squirrel, rabbit. And even elephant" says Malam Garba, aged 77 from Dali. Malam Garba and his brother harvested 700 baskets of millet from their field 40 years ago which provided a surplus for both their families.

  2. The aim of this project was to investigate what differences exist in temperatures in ...

    The burning of fossil fuels in homes, offices, and industries and by transport is another major source of heat. Smog and traffic pollution also trap outgoing radiant energy in a sort of mini greenhouse effect, all helping to maintain higher urban temperatures in dense areas of development.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work