"Geological activity is responsible for hazards which produce some extreme impacts in terms of loss of life and damage to property. If the consequences of such hazards are to be reduced, then appropriate management is necessary".
"Geological activity is responsible for hazards which produce some extreme impacts in terms of loss of life and damage to property. If the consequences of such hazards are to be reduced, then appropriate management is necessary". With reference to either volcanoes or earthquakes discuss the above statement. In your answer you should refer to examples and * briefly describe how geological activity produces such extreme impacts * show how the impacts of earthquakes and volcanic activity vary with the scale of the hazard and other factors * discuss the management strategies used to reduce the impact of volcanic eruptions or earthquakes * assess the success of such management strategies. The vast majority of earthquakes occur at plate boundaries because that is where sufficient stresses build up. The most powerful are at destructive plate boundaries where continental and oceanic plates converge e.g. the pacific and Philippine plates are being sub ducted under the Eurasian plate. They can also occur at mid plate too and are often triggered by human activity such as subsidence associated with deep underground mining or abstraction of underground water leading to sudden pressure changes. The impact depends on many factors strength of the earthquake, wealth of country ect. If the earthquake is high on the Richter scale then it has more of an impact. A shallow focus will cause
"How has the Development of the Theory of Plate Tectonics Changed Our Understanding of the Earth?" The emergence of the theory of plate tectonics could be argued as being one of the most significant developments in terms of improving our understanding of the Earth. Not only does it explain the position, shape and composition of the continents it also provides an insight into how different species flora and fauna have evolved on them. The theory of plate tectonics is able to account for and explain many of the major features and landforms found on the earth's surface. Monroe and Wicndner (1992, p361) Because new lithosphere is formed at divergent plate boundaries, older lithosphere must be destroyed and recycled in order for the entire surface of the Earth to remain constant. Subduction zones do not generally occur at converging margins between two continental plates, at least not to the extent of the two other types of margin. This is because as Lutgens and Tarbuck (2002, p135) explain "neither plate will subduct beneath the other because of the low density and thus the buoyant nature of continental rocks." There is however massive mountain building, the best example of this probably being the Himalayas which resulted from the collision between the subcontinent of India and Asia. (Lutgens and Tarbuck 2002, p135) A convergent plate margin is where "plates
"Glaciated Uplands are landscapes of erosion: glaciated lowlands are landscapes of deposition" examine the validity of this statement with reference to glaciated areas you have studied
"Glaciated Uplands are landscapes of erosion: glaciated lowlands are landscapes of deposition" examine the validity of this statement with reference to glaciated areas you have studied Arran is an ideal place to look at when examining the validity of the statement. During the Devensian Glacial, the ice sheet covering Britain reached its furthest extent, totally covering Arran. This helped to shape the landscape. In around 11,000BP the Loch Lomond Readvance occurred. This time Arran was not covered by an ice sheet but its valley glaciers grew. This formed many of the features still clearly seen on the island today. They show fresh and visible signs of the glacial erosion and deposition that once occurred. Glacial erosion is caused by ice movement combined with material within it. One type of erosion is abrasion. This occurs when pieces of rock held within the ice rub against other pieces of rock wearing them down. Another type of erosion is plucking. This occurs when ice freezes onto a piece of rock on the valley side. When the glacier moves away it may then be broken off. For these processes to occur it helps to have a steep gradient, as this will lead to ice flow. A harsh climate is also needed, which is cold, to encourage ice formation and accumulation. These conditions are often found in upland areas. Glacial deposition is caused by melting when material is dumped in
JAWS COURSEWORK The film that I will be analyzing will be Jaws. The film JAWS was a trend in the summer of 1975 smashing all box office records. Over taking many box office hits and collecting in more than $100million in its initial theatrical run, and launched the career of director Steven Spielberg. The reason why it is set on 4th of July is because it is one of the busiest days of the community and a lot of tourist come down onto the beach. At the beginning of the film the music that's plays at the back ground is soft and quiet. This makes the audience feel suspicious that something is going to happen, as the shark swiftly moves through the weeds in the deep murky water the tension on the audience builds up. The instrument that is playing the music at the background is a cello. This instrument is mostly played at a funeral. The director Steven Spielberg has used the instrument to frighten the audience when ever they hear the music kick in. on the beach when the second attack took place everybody was having fun and playing around. The people on the beach were all relaxed and they were all chilling out by listening to the radio. This makes the audience fill safe and less tense from a shark attack. When the shark attacked its victim there's always a pause of silence. This shows death because there's no more noise of the victim crying for help and crying in pain. It also
How does the Efficiency and Cross-Sectional Area of a River Change Down Stream? For my investigation I will be looking at the cross-sectional area of a river and how this affects efficiency in the river of Little Beck as the stream moves downstream from the source to nearer the mouth. To do this I will be taking measurements of the cross sectional area and the efficiency at 12 different sites along the river (See fig. 2 for map of river and 12 sites). The source of May Beck is approximately at a height of 280m on Fylingdales Moor in the North Yorkshire Moor National Park. The river flows south to join the Parsley beck, and the combined flow of these two rivers, now called the Little Beck, becomes tributary of the much larger river, River Esk, which reaches the sea at Whitby. During my investigation, I will be comparing my results to that of the Bradshaw Model. The Bradshaw Model is a model of an ideal stream (see fig. 1). By using this I can compare my results with the model to see how ideal Little Beck is. According to the Bradshaw model, at the source of the stream the cross-sectional area and efficiency are low at the source but as you move down stream they increase. Three key questions I have constructed to help me with my investigation are: . How does efficiency change as you go down stream compared to the predictions of the Bradshaw Model? 2. How does
"An investigation into the methods of coastal management along Brighton's Coastline and the reasons for them".
Md. Shahajada Chowdhury 1H 5613 Geography Coursework Mr A. Ali 0548 "An investigation into the methods of coastal management along Brighton's Coastline and the reasons for them". Contents Introduction_________________________________________________________________________4-10 Aims__________________________________________________________________________5 Coastal Management_____________________________________________________________6 Hypothesis_____________________________________________________________________6 Longshore Drift_________________________________________________________________6 Costal Damages_______________________________________________________________6-7 Coastal Protection_____________________________________________________________7-9 Hard Engineering________________________________________________7-9 Soft Engineering__________________________________________________9 Facts on Brighton_____________________________________________________________9-10 Methodology_______________________________________________________________________12-89 Data Collection______________________________________________________________15-25 Beach Profiles________________________________________________16-18 Pebble Analysis_______________________________________________19-20 Groyne Measurements__________________________________________21-22 Tourism
"Comparing the mean ratios of shell height/diameter of the Patella spp on an exposed and sheltered shore"
A2 Biology Investigation "Comparing the mean ratios of shell height/diameter of the Patella spp on an exposed and sheltered shore" Rebekah Riley Candidate number: 5037 Centre number: 28384 Background Information Limpets are slow moving molluscs, characteristic of rocky shores and are very well adapted to life on the seashore. They have a hard shell to protect themselves against predators and damage from moving rocks, and a large muscular foot that enables them to clamp firmly onto rocks to conserve water and maintain their position during rough weather. The most common limpet is Patella vulgata. The conical shell of Patella vulgata can be up to 6 cm long with radiating ridges and the apex central or slightly anterior. Orton (1928) has shown that individuals that inhabit the upper shore generally have a taller shell and smaller shell length when compared to juveniles and lower shore organisms. The thickness of shells is believed to be concerned with heat insulation and water conservation. Patella vulgata is found wherever there is a substratum firm enough for its attachment e.g. on rocks, stones and in rock pools, from the upper shore to the sublittoral fringe. It is abundant on all rocky shores of all degrees of wave exposure although the highest densities of Patella vulgata coincide with wave-exposed conditions (Fretter and Graham 1994). The species is not usually
Question Two: Why did the Kobe Earthquake in 1995, do so much damage and kill so may people? The earth's surface is not all one big piece. It is broke down into several different pieces called plates. Each plate moves a few centimetres a year. The place were two plates join up we call a plate boundary. Major earthquakes and volcanoes eruptions take place at these plate boundaries. Japan is at the boundary of three plates. It is located were the pacific and the Philippians plates move towards the Eurasian plate. As the two plates meet the Eurasian plate they are forced downwards and under the Eurasian plate. The movement has resulted in lots of earthquakes and volcanoes all over the country killing many people and destroying much land and crops. The effects of the Kobe earthquake were of awful devastation. 5,000 people died in the earthquake and 350,000 were made homeless. This was an effect of the earthquake. But also gas pipes exploded and fires burnt all over the city, this was a secondary cause of death caused by the earthquake. Other secondary causes of death were underground water pipes burst all over the city. Large areas of Kobe were blacked because electricity lines were cut. With the smoke from the fires the search for survivors was difficult. Several hospitals in the old part of Kobe were destroyed in the earthquake. When the ground moved some of the buildings did
Why is New Zealand a dangerous place to live? New Zealand is located in the southwest of the Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia. This beautiful country has many high lands, huge rivers and mountains, which are steep, very jagged and glaciated. There is plenty of ash over the North Island resulting from volcanic eruptions. What makes this amazing country so dangerous is that so many natural hazards exist here. New Zealand situated right through the ring of fire. This is a zone where frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions happen. New Zealand's volcanoes occur by the Indo-Australian plate going underneath the Pacific plate which melts causing the burst of lava, and the treacherous volcano. There is a long string of volcanoes here, some are extinct and some are active. This area is called the subduction zone. One big volcano, called White Island erupts every year. In Wellington there is a volcano that is next to an enormous fault. This could erupt at any time and if it does there will be disastrous results. 50 volcanoes surround the popular city of Auckland. In some places there is so much molten rock that the volcano could go underwater. If the water gets in, the whole city could be destroyed. Lake Taupo was formed 3000 years ago by a mammoth volcanic eruption. Another major natural hazard in New Zealand is the earthquakes. In 1931 Napia - South Island a massive
An Investigation of Channel and Stream Characteristics For Streams on the Isle of Arran Aims To investigate hypothesis associated with increasing distance down stream for streams on the Isle of Arron. Objectives To set up and test hypothesis To investigate how channel characteristics change with increasing stream order. Hypothesis . As the river progresses downstream the bedload decreases in size. 2. The bedload becomes rounder in shape downsream. 3. The width will increase in size as the river goes downstream towards the mouth of the river. 4. The velocity of the river will decrease as it goes downstream. 5. The depth will increase in size as it goes downstream. 6. The discharge will also increase as it goes downstream. Theory There are three processes by which material is transported from land to the sea (via rivers) these are: i) Weathering-physical and chemical breakdown of rocks. ii) The slope-the products of wethering are moved down the gravity gradient in mass movements by the slope wash processes. iii) Fluid transfer-water, air and ice. The load, carried by natural streams, can be separated into three compounds. The material carried by the river is called the rivers load. It comes from river erosion and weathering of the river banks. Especially when the river is bankfull, considerable quantities of load can be carried. The total amount