• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

China Rural Poverty

Extracts from this document...


China Rural Poverty After Deng Xiaoping took over the power, he imposed a lot of policies to change the economic, social and political structure. The first thing that Deng insisted to do was to improve the economic growth. But the lack of concern with the rural area brings China the decline in output and income of the peasants which widened the gap between the coastal and interior areas. In the articles "Economic growth, income inequality and poverty in China under economic reforms", the author described the improvement under Deng's policies. In "Reducing Absolute Poverty in China", fundamental problems in education and health care aspects which remained unsolved were introduced. During these few years, the government put a great effort in minimizing the rural poverty situation and there was a significant change in the rural area. There was no doubt that China has improved from time to time, although rural poverty is always a problem for the government, they start to have better plans to implement compare to the Mao and Deng eras. Yao's article, "Economic growth, income inequality and poverty in China under economic reforms", analyzed the failure of the Deng's policy. Because most poor people lived in the rural areas, Deng decided to reform agriculture first before reforming the urban and industrial sectors. The household production responsibility system was introduced. This system allowed farmers to keep a certain proportion of outputs after fulfilling a production quota set by the production team1. ...read more.


The author also explained the major causes of rural poverty the government did not solve. Although the overall status seemed to be improved, the government neglect about some basic aspects in the society which would affect the peasant's directly. The educational and health status of Chinese were still far way below the standard. Due to corruption the central government provided financial transfers to the poor areas of China but resources were not adequate to meet all primary education. The lack of financing, school facilities are often insufficient and ill equipped. Also, due to limited access, the teacher training programs did not work out efficiently. Although current training courses focus on content and pedagogical techniques appropriate for large urban schools, but few programs offer teachers instructional methods and skills needed for small and sometimes ethnically mixed rural schools8. At least half of the boys in the poorest villages, especially in some minority areas, and nearly all of the girls did not have a chance to receive education and achieve literacy9. The infant mortality rate in some very poor counties exceeded 10 percent which was greater than the national level by one fold. Diseases such as tuberculosis and iodine deficiency disorders concentrated in poor areas. Half of the children were malnutrition because they did not even have enough food to eat. In the health aspect, although China has reached a national health status comparable to many middle-income countries, people in the rural areas never had sufficient access to basic health service. ...read more.


The central government will offer training courses for officials and managerial personnel in poor areas. The government tries to use these methods and regulations to improve the rural development so that it can catch up with the urban areas as soon as possible. Since the Chinese government wanted to be competitive among the whole world, they now had the motivation to improve the poverty situation. According to China's State Statistical Bureau, 250 million people, 31 percent of the rural population, were living in poverty in 1978, all of them in the countryside. By 1985 this number was cut in half to 125 million14. At that point, the Chinese government started the first major rural development program assisting the rural poor. However, with implementation of a coastal development and financial decentralization, policies that would accelerate economic growth nationally but exacerbate the plight of significant sections of the rural poor and slow poverty reduction. The government started to concern about the rural poverty issue in 1990s, they applied a lot of financial aid programs and relief programs to deal with the problem. Premier Zhu Rongji delivered a speech in the Central Poverty Relief and Development Working Conference in May 2001. He concluded that China's rural poverty situation is improving during the last twenty years. Although there is still a long way to go in order to minimize the gap between the coastal and rural area, and to defeat the rural poverty, the government have the confidence that they will be able to improve themselves so that they will be able to compete with the foreign in all aspects. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Population & Settlement section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Population & Settlement essays

  1. The Inner-city-Problems and solving them

    After leaving these help schemes the young adults now have the prospect of a healthy future ahead of them. However not all children are willing to enter schools or in this case the help scheme. Single mothers, who live in houses on their own, now receive more money for the government to cater for their needs.

  2. To What Extent did the Gradual Abandonment of the Maoist Development Paradigm Between the ...

    Despite the aforementioned focus on heavy industry, light industry and agriculture were by no means to be ignored. Light industry was useful not only because it produced goods which were more likely to keep the people happy, but also because any investments would bear fruit more rapidly than those in heavy industry.

  1. World Development

    Education in LEDC'S is very few having formal education; although the females are disadvantaged since adult literacy in LEDC'S is 45 for males and 22 for females from Bangladesh. Water in MEDC'S comes in an instant, fresh supply to ensure healthy hydration for life and sanitation.

  2. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the GMS poses a serious health problem with potentially disastrous ...

    I am especially grateful for his sharing with me a draft of his paper on "Poverty and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa," which I have used extensively. Guenter Hemrich, Agricultural Advisor to GTZ's Integrated Food Security Programme in Eastern Province, Kenya, provided invaluable input to the various stages of the paper, and particularly to the framework.

  1. This briefing is in relation to the Inquiry into Skills Shortages in Rural and ...

    More people will lose their jobs and families will have to move to find work. Regional Industries - Many regional industries are desperate to expand, but are being hampered by a lack of skilled labour. Councils - A current situation can be seen Wagga Wagga NSW.

  2. Explain why urban-industrialization in China during the central planning period deprived the rural sector.

    Migration allows output to increase and with this wages begin to rise, prompting a sharp increase in the standards of living. As the supply curve of labour becomes more inelastic due to an improved rural marginal product of labour, relative agricultural prices begin to rise ultimately resulting in an improvement of the rural urban terms of trade.

  1. Dear Journal, (Absolute & Relative Location)

    of houses were two stories with a noticeable backyard, by noticeable I mean you actually need a lawnmower instead of a pair of scissors. This means that the city of Sydney is very low density, but surprisingly it has one of the lowest rural population figures in the world, something around 15%.


    The second is the western variant, also known as the Ch'eng-tu or Upper Yangtze variant; this is spoken in the Szechwan Basin and in adjoining parts of south-west China. The third is the southern variant, also known as the Nanking or Lower Yangtze variant, which is spoken in northern Kiangsu

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work