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Cities face similar environmental problems and require similar solutions. Discuss this view.

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Introduction

Cities face similar environmental problems and require similar solutions. Discuss this view. Most cities suffer from air pollution it varies both spatially and temporally. Cities in the LEDC'S suffer severe air pollution due to the rapid growth in population and increases in motor vehicles and industrialization. This is also made worse by a lack of legislative controls on the sources of pollution and inadequate policing and enforcement of laws to control emissions. For example Mexico City has the worst records for air pollution. This is caused by the site of the city is in a basin surrounded by mountains compounds the problem. The Smogs are frequent as pollutant are trapped in the basin under high pressure conditions and temperature inversions frequently form. The greatest contributor to the pollution is motor vehicles which generate 97% of the carbon monoxide and 66% of the nitrogen dioxide. As well 35,000 industries also make a significant contribution. Many are old and unregulated and pump out large amounts of pollutants including lead. This has lead to 3000 deaths a year are attributed to poor air quality. Also the smogs have been so severe that schools have been closed for a month. However in MEDCs the enivironmental problems of air pollution is variable compared to LEDCs for example Los Angeles is one of the most polluted cities in the world with unhealthy air quality on more than one third of the days in a year. ...read more.

Middle

Air quality improved by 15%. As well taxis over 10 years old have been replaced and lead petrol has been cut by 50%. However in MEDCs like Los Angeles they have different solutions such as regulations from governing everything from the use of motor mowers, furniture polish and vehicle emission. There has been a Mandatory state wide introduction of cleaner burning gasoline (CBG) introduced in March 1996 California Environmental Protection Agency says this reduced ozone forming emission by 15% the same effect as removing 3.5 million cars from the road. This fuel was the most important advance sine the introduction of the catalytic convertor. Furthermore in London the Clean Air Act (1956) and control of emissions from homes and factories. There are also variable speed limits on M25 to keep traffic jams to a minimum. Red routes where stopping is prohibited to reduce exhaust fumes. There are also pedestrian schemes as well the introduction of trams between Croydon and Wimbledon. Furthermore there are congestion charges which also reduce traffic charges. As well they have improved Underground and public transport to reduce the volume of cars. However with the environmental problem of water pollution is very different between MEDCs and LEDCs. In MEDCs domestic water needs to have no smell, no colour, no unpleasant taste and no pathogentic bacteria. The need for high quality water water for domestic consumption conflicts with the lowering of water qquality caused by waste disposal from both domestic and industrial users of water. ...read more.

Conclusion

More dangerous to human health are the myriad of other by products that may be emptied into water courses. In MEDCs such effluent disposal is largely controlled and large fines are handed out to companies that accidentally leak unwanted by products. In the LEDCs legislation is often lacking and there is little enforcement so that dirty, polluting industries often locate LEDCS legislation is often lacking and there is little enforcement so that dirty, polluting industries often locate in LEDCs sometimes with disastrous consequences. The high incidence of malformation has been traced to nearby industries dumping heavy metals such as lead and mercury into rivers. The pollutants are then concentrated through the food chain eventually affecting people trough their consumption. As well the management strategies between MEDCs and LEDCs are very different in The river Ganges they are building water treatment works to purify water before being returned to the river. As well recycling of gas and fertilizer from wastes and buildings of dams to isolate soiled waters. Furthermore they have introduced cheap sanitary programmes and educating the population about the serious pollution problem. However in MEDCS like Teesside improvements are made to industrial and sewage discharges which have dramatically improved dissolved oxygen levels cut levels of ammonia and reduced the presence of toxic chemicals in the water. As well the BASF is installing new process equipment which will reduce their releases of ammonia by 33 %. This has lead to new improvements to the area. ...read more.

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