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"Cleaner production is a continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy to processes and products so as to reduce the risks to humans and the environment."

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Introduction

INTRODUCTION: "Cleaner production is a continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy to processes and products so as to reduce the risks to humans and the environment." CP is especially attractive to developing countries because it provides industries an opportunity to 'leap frog' over all ready existing and established industries. Need for CP in Industries Of the portion of the Indian economy contributed by the industrial sector, about half of it comes from small scale industries which contribute to about 60-65% of the total industrial pollution .Traditional environmental protection efforts have in reality many disadvantages. Therefore the Cleaner Production is the need of the day. Cleaner Production Vs End-of-Pipe Treatment The aim of the end-of-pipe approach is to control or treat the waste and emissions when they are already created, while CP aims to prevent waste and emission to be generated in the first place. EOP approach presents the following disadvantages * It results in the transfer of pollutant from one medium to another. * It rarely reduces the absolute quantity of pollutants. * It assumes that the environment has enough capacity to take care of the residual pollution levels by itself. * It requires huge dead investments and recurring expenses, which makes this process highly unsustainable at times. Cleaner Production Techniques This new and creative approach to enable the production processes less waste intensive is based on diff techniques. ...read more.

Middle

This involves direct involvement and supervision of the management. Most important is the conviction. The seriousness has to be reflected in programs and actions, not merely words * Operators Involvement. While the management's involvement in decision making and propelling cleaner production activities is essential, ultimately the shop floor work has to be carried out by the operators and supervisors. * Organized Approach An organized approach in assigning responsibility, fixing targets, reviewing progress and timely implementation would enable to establish the program as a continuous activity and develop a culture of doing better. BARRIERS TO CLEANER PRODUCTION The barriers to Introduction of cleaner production can be listed as follows. 1. The environmental laws of the country are not scrupulously enforced. 2. Even in areas where the CP options are economically viable, without calculating the environmental benefits, the entrepreneurs are not willing to invest money because they are not aware that the returns can be so quick and fabulous. 3. The present environmental laws in the country and their enforcement, practically emphasizes the technical standards and not the performance standards. 4. The present environmental laws stipulate full compliance of the MINAS, with no credit given for the partial compliance. 5. Lack of financial resources. 6. Many entrepreneurs feel that the time and effort that is needed for introducing pollution prevention methods can better be utilized in improving other area of profitability, like marketing or raw material procurement etc. ...read more.

Conclusion

The unit was using Down-Draught Coal fired kilns for pottery making. Since the Delhi airport is close-by, the unit was under constant pressure to control emission. The emission was particularly severe after firing of the coal. Particulate emission were 2.5 times more than the permissible level (3000mg/Nm3 Vs the prescribed standards of 1200 mg/Nm3) Initially the unit tried to solve the problem by end-of -pipe pollution control measures, by installing cyclones to remove particulates. The problems remained unsolved, because cyclones are an incorrect choice for a pottery unit where dust particles are of a very fine size. Cleaner production revealed that smoke was being generated principally because of improper firing practices and combustion management. These conditions were modified by training the operators on efficient firing practices such as: * Instead of four shovels per firing, only two shovels per firing. * Augmentation of induced draught fan capacity * Installation of Draught control system. The adoption of these practices resulted in: 1. A drastic reduction in smoke emission, down to 1100 mg/Nm3, thereby avoiding the need of installing an expensive air pollution control system. 2. Saving 28 per cent fuel worth Rs. 2,50,000 per year, due to better combustion efficiency. Other benefits that accrued were: * Better quality of pottery due to better heat, distribution in the kiln and rejection rate down by 50 per cent. * About 3-4 weeks were now needed to augment fan capacity. ...read more.

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