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Examine the different shanty settlement improvement schemes in the Less Economically Developed World (LEDW). Evaluate each scheme using casestudy examples.

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Introduction

Examine the different shanty settlement improvement schemes in the Less Economically Developed World (LEDW). Evaluate each scheme using casestudy examples. Shanty towns or squatter settlements consist of a collection of small, crude shacks made of discarded materials. They serve as habitations for poor people on the outskirts of towns especially in South America (Favelas), Asia (Busti) and Africa (Shanty towns). Shanty towns have few services and are usually heavily crowded. Several schemes have been developed to help improve them. These include self-help/ upgrading, site and service, co-operatives, high rise blocks and new settlements such as satellite towns. The simplest and most straightforward way of improving housing is known as Upgrading. This involves improving housing and facilities in already existing squatter settlements and is known as self help housing. The most important thing about this approach is the community spirit. There are three potential upgrading elements. Firstly, the provision of the basic services for example water, toilets, and electricity that are missing. The second thing that is usually necessary to be improved is the physical layout of the area. Every effort is made during this to minimise the disruption involved. The process is often referred to as reblocking. The most important is the third, the establishment of security of tenure. ...read more.

Middle

In Sao Paulo's periferia, several schemes have enabled running water, main drains and electricity to be added to houses with street lighting and improved roads depending on the amount of surplus money. The result, over a lengthy period of time has been the upgrading of living conditions even though people are still poor. Site and service can create a community spirit, can improve the skills of local people and can create cheap to erect accommodation. Yet their success often depends upon the motivation and skills of the local people and the use of appropriate cheap building materials under expert guidance. Self help and site and service schemes are the in-between stages of the co-operative scheme. This scheme is the key to further improvements, the next step is the legal title to the land or at least some guarantee of permanence by the authorities. Only then is it safe for residents to build permanent homes made out of bricks and mortar. The community association can then put together a convincing case to the authorities to install water, drains and electricity and to build roads. Co-operative schemes are very much apart of site and service and self help schemes. High rise blocks are different again. These are provided in the hope of replacing squatter settlements. ...read more.

Conclusion

This scheme was fairly successful as it did reduce the amount of overcrowding in Rio de Janeiro it didn't really helps those living in the favelas as they still suffer the same problems. Cairo also had a similar idea to this and they built new satellite and dormitory towns such as 10th Ramadan and 15th May. These have been built in the hope to disperse some of the city's population and have so far proved been successful. Improving conditions for the urban poor in cities in the less economically developed world remain a key issue for many governments and local authorities. Most LEDCs want to improve life for the urban poor despite lack of finance, difficulties over land ownership and the continuing flood of rural migrants into the cities all make the task extremely difficult. Several shanty settlement improvement schemes have helped to improve conditions. It is indicated throughout the LEDW that the most successful projects revolve around self help schemes that can be made affordable for even the poorest sections of the shanty town communities. They also maintain community spirit and enable families to continue to access their places of employment. The less successful schemes include the high rise flats and those involving the re-housing of the squatters on the periphery of cities or beyond. Schemes must provide continuity of employment, formal or informal or alternative employment opportunities to be successful. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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