• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Experiment to Compare the Percentage Area Covered by Lichen on Gravestones and the Age of the Gravestone

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Experiment to Compare the Percentage Area Covered by Lichen on Gravestones and the Age of the Gravestone Abstract The aim of this individual study was compare the amount of lichen found on gravestones in a graveyard and the first stated age printed on the gravestone. The initial hypothesis was that the older the gravestone, the higher percentage coverage of lichen. In this experiment 20 samples were taken at random out of a field of 87 gravestones in an open graveyard at Chaldon Church in Coulsdon, Surrey. The results collected will be collated into a spearman's rank statistical test and analysed. Plan Hypothesis There will be a higher percentage coverage of lichens present as the age of the gravestones increase. Variables The aspect of the gravestones. Whether the gravestones would be covered by shade at any time. The geology of the gravestone The size and type of the gravestones. The age of the gravestone The amount and type of lichen found The aspect of the gravestones, although not a problem in the case of the graveyard I will be measuring could have caused some concerns. In the Case of Chaldon Church the graveyard is completely open on the east side of the church. ...read more.

Middle

If a gravestone is not tall enough or wide enough then it will have to be removed from the sample and another random gravestone selected. The age of the gravestone is one of the two variables that I intend to measure. This will not be controlled in any way. There is no age limit to the sample and if a gravestone is selected is 200 years old or just 2 years old then it will still be selected and used in my experiment. I will also only note the first date on the gravestone when the first person has been buried to keep the whole experiment constant. The amount of lichen found is the other variable to my experiment. There will be many different types of lichen present on the gravestones but I will not be measuring these as they have no input into my experiment as I am not measuring diversification. However, all lichen that is located in the quadrat during the fieldwork will be measured and not controlled as it is all relevant to my investigation as a collective species. The measurements of percentage coverage will be taken as accurately as possible using the 100, 5cm2 boxes in the 50cm2 whole quadrat. ...read more.

Conclusion

If anything needs to be changed for the real experiment then it can be as the pilot will be a test run and a buffer to see whether the whole experiment can work. Risk Assessment There are no hazardous chemicals involved in this experiment as I am only partaking in a measurement of natural ecology. However consideration must be give to any organisms that I come across and I must not interfere with the course of nature by touching or removing any of the lichens or any other vegetation or animals in the region. Ethical considerations on part of the church must be undertaken and I must ask for full permission from members of the church such as a pastor or reverend, if they are present, to use their graveyard as part of my studies. Also I must be careful not to tread on graves or disrupt any decorations of the graveyard such as flowers. None of the procedures will be dangerous, although suitable footwear such as walking boots would be advisable as there is a slight slope to the graveyard and no footpaths, only grass. Anything that I take into the graveyard shall also be removed such as apparatus or litter. Apparatus * 100cm Ruler (with millimetre markings) * 50cm2 Quadrat * Calculator (with random number generator) * Pencils and Pens for sketching * Paper for sketching the plan map and for data results 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Atmosphere & Weathering section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Atmosphere & Weathering essays

  1. Free essay

    Conserving or Removing Mangroves

    One of the many detrimental effects the destruction of coastal mangroves in Malaysia has brought about is coastal erosion. The coastal villages become increasingly susceptible to erosion and being battered by strong waves and storms when the mangroves, which

  2. In the experiment mimicking extratropical cyclones, how does the apparatus represent the atmosphere of ...

    Without the rotating movement of the turntable, the Coriolis effect is not represented. The dye does not move in a curved pattern because there is a lack of rotation to cause this change in motion. This would represent the equator where the effect of Coriolis force is zero because the effect of the earth's rotation there is zero.

  1. Acid rain study

    Countries need to co-operate with other to monitor and control the amount of emissions emitted. It can be complicated for some countries as they can be unwilling to take responsibility, especially if they are less affected by the problem. It is important that there is international co-operation as acid rain

  2. Personal and Imaginative Writing - My Trip to Sacramento

    A couple of days after there was the wedding day and my cousin called Farhan who was getting married was quite nervous. We travelled to the hall in style in a limo. The weather wasn't as hot as the other days it was a bit breezy and cooler.

  1. A comparison of Fluvial and Glacial Sediments (deposits) In the Glen Rosa area of ...

    * River sediment will have been rounded by river transport and attrition whereas glacial sediment, having only travelled a sort distance, will be angular. And slip off slope deposits will lie with their B axis at right angles to the flow of the river whereas glacial deposits are thought to

  2. Distinguish between the processes of erosion and weathering in an area undergoing glaciation.

    Aviemore is one of the largest winter tourism centres in Britain with several ski runs on the upper slopes of the Cairngorms. Communications are also affected by glacially eroded landforms. Glaciated valleys offer natural routeways through high mountain landscapes and lower areas e.g.

  1. The aim of my study is to find out if Norsworthy Bridge is a ...

    These are only allowed for mining and farmers etc. but are not allowed to be expanded without special permission. Key Question Fieldwork Techniques Purpose For Techniques Is Norsworthy Bridge a honeypot? Answer the other questions. They will help me decide.

  2. Travel Writing.

    The water was a lot hotter than I had expected and I gasped slighted as I withdrew myself from the water. I was aware that it might be warm from the sun, but the water was practically boiling. My foot throbbed slightly for a second.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work