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How useful are models when investigating migration?

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Introduction

How useful are models when investigating migration? Joynal Ahmed There are seven types of migration models; they are Ravenstein's model, gravity model, Stouffers model, Lee's model, Zelinsky's model, push-pull model and the stepwise model. In the 1880s Ravenstein put forward 'The Laws of Migration' based on observations of patterns in UK, supplemented date from the US. The laws are: Most migrants travel short distances and their numbers decrease with an increasing distance. Migration occurs in waves, was one group leaves then that space left will be filled up by another group. Emigration is the opposite of immigration. Most migration shows two way movements, as people tend to move in out of region, resulting to net migration flows. The longer the journey of a migrant, the more likely it will be that he/she is heading for a major city. Urban dwellers are less likely to move. Females migrate more than males but less distance. Most migrants follow a step migration, where several small movements from village to major city rather than one large movement. People are leaving rural areas in increasing numbers an example of this is Sakaltutam, Turkey to Pforzheion. People mainly migrate for economic purposes such as jobs; an example of this is the migration of people from Gwynedd to Cardiff in Wales. ...read more.

Middle

Lee model tried to explain that the factors affecting migration are in terms of the push and pull factors of the destination. Migrants must expect to receive some added advantage in moving from one place to another. Also movements from an area such as the rural area to the final destination such as a city are likely to be influenced by obstacles at either at the current area, the final destination or during the route. Such obstacles might include family pressures, misinformation, national policy & travel costs, lack of capital, and lack of literacy and military service military service. Lee also believed that people may move to the city due to job opportunities but they might not move because it's polluted and depressing. A case study is that people from Ethiopia are moving to France and Italy due to political problems. Lee's model helps the movement of migration by involving push-pull factors; this is a very logical theory. This theory can be quite useful because it gives a logical explanation to movement an example is farmers in copmanthorpe are migrating to cities such as Newcastle to find better jobs. Also his theory uses Stouffers model and the push-pull model and this is good because it gives a better understanding of migration because its 2 models packed into one also it also solve Ravenstein's problems because it includes factors such as war unlike Ravenstein's. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is useful, it states why people are migrating towards an area but it is too brief, the theory is a bit like Lee's model but brief and it doesn't have statistical figures backing the theory up. Stepwise model is when people migrate from rural areas to cities in stages and vice versa and normally people move from rural areas to towns to cities but the stepwise model also suggests that people move back to rural areas causing counter urbanisation. This is useful it states where people migrate from Gwynedd to Cardiff, but it doesn't show why people there. This models are useful in their own ways, but in terms of investigating migration as a whole, stating where it is, how it happened and what's going to happen with migration, the models singly aren't very useful but if the are used together it is very useful when investigating migration because it states where the migration is and what stage its at, it states why there is migration and the future of migration in LEDC could be determined by looking at the stage its at by looking at the Zelinsky's model, it only shows the rate of migration in the LEDC but if the model is used with Lees model the direction of the migration can be known. This concludes that, using the models together can give a better investigation of migration. ...read more.

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