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Investigation into the changes that occur as you move through from the outskirts of a city to the centre of a city.

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Introduction

Name: Jake Mennie Centre Name: Hendon School Centre Number: 12248 Syllabus Title: Geography Syllabus Code: Syllabus A Syllabus Number: 1586 Investigation into the changes that occur as you move through from the outskirts of a city to the centre of a city Contents: Introduction - 3 Method - 8 Data Presentation - 13 Data Analysis and Conclusion - 20 Evaluation - 23 Bibliography - 24 Introduction Investigation into the changes that occur as you move through from the outskirts of a city to the centre of a city > As you move closer to the CBD, traffic will increase. Traffic will increase as you get closer to the CBD because of the amount of people who work in the CBD. This means that there will be lots of people all commuting to one place from a very large area. Most of these people will own a car and as there are lots of people commuting to one place they will all have to use the same roads. This means that the amount of cars will increase. However this can have anomalies due to congestion charges and public transport. People are using public transport in the city centre so as to avoid charges where they might not use it further out of the city because there are no charges. Meaning there might be a higher amount of cars on the outskirts than in the centre. > As you move closer to the CBD, the height of buildings will increase. There is generally less open land in the CBD than there would be on the outskirts of a city. This land is also very high in demand as there are lots of companies who would like to own this land. This means that demand is higher than supply, making it a sellers' market. Due to this the land is very expensive closer to the CBD. ...read more.

Middle

I did it between those hours to make it a fair test, as the streets would obviously have more and less busy times. To find out the house ages I estimated the houses age as I went along the transect. I also went to an estate agents' web site to find out the ages of the houses they sold in those areas. This was for hypothesis 4. Doing this would give me more accurate findings rather then estimating the ages myself as the estate agent would have more accurate information. Survey Area __________ Do you live within 1 mile of this area? Yes ? No ? Sex Male ? Female ? Age 18-25 ? 26-30 ? 31-35 ? 36-40 ? 41-45 ? 46-50 ? 51-60 ? 61+ ? Do you work full time? Yes ? No ? If yes what do you work as? ____________________________________ What is your salary? -15 ? 15-25 ? 26-35 ? 36-45 ? 46-55 ? 56-65 ? 66-75 ? 76+ ? Data Presentation We can see from the graph that there is a weak negative correlation that shows that as you move towards the CBD the amount of pedestrians goes up. Spearman's rank Area Distance from CBD (x) Number of pedestrians (y) Rank x Rank y Difference between ranks (d) D� Edgware 10.5 2 1 5 -4 16 Golders Green 5.3 5 2 4 -2 4 Mornington Crescent 1.8 8 3 3 0 0 Warren street 1.33 13 4 2 2 4 Embankment 0 37 5 1 4 16 Total 40 Rs = 1- 6 x ?D� n� - n Rs = 1 - 6 x 40 5� - 5 Rs = 1 - 240 125-5 Rs = 1 - 2 Rs = 1 Null hypothesis: There is no relationship between the distance from the CBD and the amount of Pedestrians. When Comparing Rs to Critical Values of Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient we can say that the null hypothesis can be rejected to 99% accuracy. ...read more.

Conclusion

Figure A1, the scatter graph on page 14 supports this. It shows that there are almost 20 times as many pedestrians on the street in the CBD as there are on the outskirts of the city. This can once again be related to the land use in the area. There is lots of residential land use on the outskirts of a city so people don't need to travel far to work because they would live nearby. People working in the CBD will have to travel to get to work as they don't live nearby. My fourth hypothesis, 'as you move closer to the CBD the houses will get older', was proved to be correct. Figures B1 to B5 on page 17 supports this. They show that the houses are much newer on the outskirts of the city then they are in the CBD. The average age of houses over 1.4 miles from the CBD averaged between 1910 and 1950, whereas the housing within 1.4 miles from the CBD was pre 1800 to 1850. My final hypothesis 'as you move towards the CBD socio-economic groups change'. This was also proved to be correct. Figures C1 to C5 on page 18 show that there is a clear change halfway through the city towards the CBD from the outskirts. There is also a difference in the CBD from any other places. The socio economic groups in the outskirts of the city are almost opposite to the groups 2 miles from the CBD. Evaluation Evaluation Method Faults Improvements Why it would have made it better Traffic count Possible biased results due to traffic lights or junctions, not enough results to compare as I only took the count at one time in one place for each area Take the count in more places, and take them in more then one time of the day, or weekday and weekends. Would have given more accurate results and a larger range of results. Observation of building height Only took the observation and sample in one area Take the sample over a bigger area with a bigger sample. ...read more.

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