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Waste management instruments available to Stirling Council to influence the behaviour of the households in this area

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Waste management instruments available to Stirling Council to influence the behaviour of the households in this area Introduction Waste problems have been getting severe and controversial after the industrial revolution (between 1750 and 1850) and following economic growth. A series of incidents, which were caused by hazardous waste emission by industries, were highlighted as a result of rapid economic growth in the late 1960s and 1970s. People's awareness of waste management issues have been motivated by concern for human health (Williams, 1998). However, economic growth and increasing waste are correlated as history has shown. In the 1990s, the concept of 'sustainable development' emerged as tackling many environmental problems. The famous conference: Earth Summit in Rio, 1992 brought a 40-chapter report of action plan for sustainable development, Agenda 21. This report stressed bottom-up participatory and community-based approaches, promotes ' think globally, act locally'. In effect, though waste management strategy is relatively similar worldwide, every local government bring different approach in their environmental plan as a 'Local agenda 21'(O'Riordan, 2000). As to the waste management strategy in Scotland, the context synchronise the waste strategy both of EU and England and Wales. This strategy is well known as the EU waste management hierarchy. According to this, disposal to landfill is considered as undesirable option that should be avoided. Stirling area belongs to the Forth Valley Area Waste Group (the group is one of eleven waste strategy areas in Scotland). In these areas, 198,000 tones of MSW generates annually in, 95% of which is landfilled and municipal waste is predicted to increase 2 per cent annually (SEPA, 2001). Although existing dumps unlikely to fill up landfill before 2100, Shortage of Landfill Capacity and rising costs of a landfill site are major problem in UK and likely to happen in this area later on. ...read more.


The solutions should be made in order to avoid the problems especially in tax systems. The fairness issue may be solved if revenues generated by environmental taxes to reduce other taxes in the economy or introduce ability-to-pay principle would introduce the tax collection system. (Turner et al, 1998). 3. Recycle and Composting Recycling is widely recognized to be environmental beneficial. It decreases demand for landfill site and reduced use of virgin material that consequently lead to emission reduction to environment and saving energy consumption. In Scotland, just over half the local authorities conduct separate schemes collecting materials for recycling. Approximately, local authorities collect just 4% of total waste in 1998. In order to reduce major part of municipal waste, government has introduced 'The Producer Responsibility Obligations (Packaging Waste) Regulations in 1997 as part of the UK implementation of the EC Directive (94/62/EC) on Package and Packaging Waste. Accordingly, at least 4.65 million tonnes of packaging waste much be recover or recycled each year (SEPA, 2001). The concept of 'producer responsibility' is, literally, that the producer should take responsibility for the waste that arose from their product, rather than expecting society to pay for waste collection and treatment. In order to fulfil the obligation, producers establish a parallel waste collection system or they can free to find the most cost-efficient way. For example, in France and Italy, the industry pays local authorities a fee - which generated from a levy on each package - for packaging material collection and segregation for recycling (Craighill et al, 1996). Two types of systems exist to reclaim the materials separately, the 'Bring' and the 'Collect' systems. ...read more.


I recommend the money gained from the landfill can be used for planning and delivering educational program as well. * Recycling As one of the residents of Stirling, I feel many people are reluctant to collect materials for recycling mainly because the storage space and nuisance while storing. The local government need to reduce such a disadvantage by both giving financial incentives (i.e. change recyclable materials and recycled products as a reward) and educating people (by encouraging school to plan recycling competition for instance). Local governments also need to support the market of secondary products in the same way as encouraging refundable product stated above. * Composting Follow the example of Moray Council as I have previously mentioned, composting unit (i.e. Green Corn) can be installed in each household in attempt to reduce organic material going to landfill. * Education Providing information and educating people, are fundamental to those instruments stated above. It is important to make people aware that waste management is a social responsibility, and that local government should plan various information by broadcasting and educational programs for each generation of local society with different approach. I recommend such programs can be designed with other organizations and local communities in order to for these programs work effectively in local communities and enhance other waste management instruments. In conclusion, there are many instruments exist that can be broadly divided into 'Carrot' or 'Stick'. However, there is no 'good' or 'wrong' approach. As the sustainable concept " think globally, act locally" as shown, ecology, economy and social circumstances are different among each region. Therefore, combination of those instruments and cooperative attitude within household is essential in order to cycle those measure smoothly. Information dissemination and education can be good oil for the wheels of best practice options of waste management. ...read more.

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