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Explain the structure and functioning of different types of joints D1- Analyse how musculo-skeletal functioning is affected by exercise and how exercise helps to maintain healthy functioning of the musculo-skeletal system.

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Introduction

We move our bodies through joints - places where two or more bones meet one another. At the joint the bones are specifically shaped so that they can move with one other smoothly when the muscles which are attached to them contract and relax, pulling them in different directions. Some joints allow a wide range of movement in different directions and other joints only allow limited movements. This is how joints are classified- according to how they move. There are three main types of Joints, these are: * Fibrous joints- which do not move and are therefore sometimes referred to as immovable joints. * Cartilaginous- which have some movement and are also called slightly moveable joints. * Synovial- which have a wide range of movement and can be referred to as freely moveable joints. Or Freely Moveable Joints. Synovial Joints are the most common and most moveable joints within the body, and they can be found within all limbs. ...read more.

Middle

An example of this type would be the growth plates. Secondary cartilaginous joints also called symphyses are the other type, occurring in the midline of the body. An example of this type of joint is the intervertebral joint and also the pubic synthesis. Or Immoveable Joints. Fibrous joints are attached to dense connective tissue consisting mainly of collagen. The bones in these joints are in very close contact and are separated only by a thin layer of fibrous connective tissue. These joints do not move. Fibrous joints are divided into three types; these are Sutures, Syndesmoses and Gomphoses. When the bones of the skull become fixed together by fibrous tissue they form an immovable Suture joint. Syndesmoses joints are found between long bones of the body, such as the radius and ulna in forearm and the fibula and tibia in leg. ...read more.

Conclusion

Cortisol is a stress hormone that builds up fat, making weight loss difficult. Cortisol causes many health problems, both physically and mentally. Over-exercising can do more harm than good, with the definition of over-exercising varying according to each individual. In some extreme instances, over-exercising induces serious performance loss and overexertion of muscles leads to rhabdomyolysis (damage to a muscle). Exercise helps to maintain a healthy functioning of the musculo-skeletal system by keeping the muscles active so that the joints do not seize up and stop working. Exercise allows the muscle attached to the skeleton to overtime expand, becoming stronger and healthier. As an individual becomes older, their level of physical activity dramatically decreases. As a result, the bony structure begins to demineralise, leading to a weakening of the entire structure. As the individual becomes weak and feeble, the bones may begin to spontaneously fracture. Had the individual maintained their exercise program, they would not have become dependent upon others to provide the movements no longer available to them. ?? ?? ?? ?? Karlie Jane Whitmore Unit 32- mobility and exercise ...read more.

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