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Sociological Perspectives on Health. Theories and the effects of income on health.

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Introduction

The Functionalist perspective intends to explain the way society works in a state of harmony to ensure that functions run smoothly. Talcott Parsons was one theorist saw society as a system made up of several institutions working in sync to provide a better society. Some features the functionalist perspective does not take into consideration are free will and conflict between institutions. The Marxist perspective was initially developed by Karl Marx. It was his understanding that all individual behaviour is shaped by the social structure and their clearly defined social classes. The two main social classes are the bourgeoisie, a small group of people that held power, and the proletariat, the larger group of lower class people and "workers". He believed that these two groups would always suffer from conflict and that this could potentially lead to a revolution. A Marxist would argue that the ruling class gain power through mass media and the legal system to force influence of their views upon the lower class. As with the functionalist perspective Marxism leaves little room for free will and focuses on the inequalities between the two defined social classes. There are multiple types of feminism three examples of this perspective would be Marxist feminism, radical feminism, and liberal feminism. ...read more.

Middle

A health impact can be positive or negative. A positive health impact is an effect which contributes to good health or to improving health. For example, having a sense of control over one's life and having choices is known to have a beneficial effect on mental health and well being, making people feel "healthier" (Wilkinson, 1996). A negative health impact has the opposite effect, causing or contributing to ill health. For example, working in unhygienic or unsafe conditions or spending a lot of time in an area with poor air quality is likely to have an adverse effect on physical health status. Holistic health is a concept in medical practice upholding that all aspects of people's needs, psychological, physical and social should be taken into account and seen as a whole. As defined above, the holistic view on treatment is widely accepted in medicine. A different definition, claiming that disease is a result of physical, emotional, spiritual, social and environmental imbalance, is used in alternative medicine. Ill health, unhealthiness, health problem; a state in which you are unable to function normally and without pain. Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. ...read more.

Conclusion

to approximately 34% in 2007-2008. As the figures above suggest in the relation to children that are brought up in poverty there is a direct impact upon their life spans and the rate of which they gain knowledge. Some of this could be put down social behaviours of the children's peers whereas some could argue that because there is not enough money to provide a toughly nutritional meal there could be physical implications on the individual's body. Also the lack of heat can cause sluggish behaviour and as their parents are not often available to support their child with their education issues could also arise. The figures for American ill health suggest obesity is increasing and is having a direct effect on fertility rates amongst American adults. This can be put down to the secondary health issues that can be associated with obesity such as type two diabetes that can lead to male impotence and a drastically reduced quality of life and life span. http://www.who.int/hia/about/glos/en/index1.html accessed on 18st of March 2012 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holistic_health accessed on 18st of March 2012 http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=ill%20health accessed on 18st of March 2012 http://www.who.int/topics/disabilities/en/ accessed on 18st of March 2012 http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/disease accessed on 18st of March 2012 http://www.medilexicon.com/medicaldictionary.php?t=55643 accessed on 18st of March 2012 http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_does_the_socio-medical_models_of_health_mean accessed on 18st of March 2012 http://www.barnardos.org.uk/what_we_do/our_projects/child_poverty/child_poverty_what_is_poverty/child_poverty_statistics_facts.htm accessed on 18st of March 2012 http://205.207.175.93/VitalStats/TableViewer/chartView.aspx accessed on 18st of March 2012 http://www.cdc.gov/NCHS/data/hestat/obesity_adult_07_08/obesity_adult_07_08.pdf accessed on 18st of March 2012 ?? ?? ?? ?? 7.1 Liam Dolman --- 236687 ...read more.

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