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Unit 8 psychological perspectives

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Unit 8 Psychological Perspectives P1, P2, P3 (A) Behaviourist Theory According to Crittenden, et al. (2005) behaviour is learnt through seeing what someone else does. This can be explained further through the experiment of classical conditioning. Classical Conditioning was developed by Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov used the experiment of dogs and food so as to measure the levels of salivation that a dog produced when food had been associated with the assistant. He developed this experiment when he noticed that the dog was starting to salivate at the sight of the bowl of the food and not the taste. He decided to experiment further and he introduced a bell which was the neutral stimulus, it had no effect at the start but when he rang the bell when he brought the food to the dogs they started to associate the food (which made them salivate) with the bell. Now that classical conditioning had taken place the dogs would salivate at the sound of the bell which was now the conditioned stimulus. Another form of learning was shown in operant conditioning or reinforcement. This type of leaning was introduced by B.F. Skinner. He was famous for inventing the Skinner box, in which he used rats to show reinforcement, both positive and negative. The Skinner box consisted of a lever and a food dispenser in which if the rat pressed the leaver it received a pellet of food (positive reinforcement), from this behaviour the rat would start to repeatedly press the leaver as it was receiving a reward. ...read more.


He agreed with the behaviourists in the sense of learning from our own actions and positive and negative reinforcement can have an effect, however, he believed that learning can take place in more ways than our own actions. He stated that if we were to only learn from waiting for a positive or a negative reinforcement from a behaviour it would take a long time to learn everything that we know. Bandura introduced learning from observing other people followed by modelling our behaviour on what they do. If we see a person being reinforced for a behaviour that we may like, we would imitate it so as to receive the same response as the other person. Bandura used an experiment using a Bobo doll to show his theory. He used a group of children who were shown a video of a woman attacking a Bobo doll. It showed the woman punching and kicking the doll, hitting it with a hammer and shouting at it. The children where then introduced to a playground with various toys including a Bobo doll. According to Crittenden et al. (2005 pg 265)'90 percent of children ignored the other toys and began to attack the Bobo doll with a hammer and shouted at it as the young woman had done', Bandura brought the same children back to the playground 8 months later and 40 percent repeated this behaviour. This proved his theory that they learned this behaviour from learning from imitation. ...read more.


This can be expressed through children, in completing this stage can make them feel a state of stagnation. From age 40+: Achieving integrity, this stage is looking at their past and feeling happy about their decisions they have achieved. (Crittenden et al. 2005) (G) Describe the application of psychodynamic perspectives in health and social care. Freud had developed a treatment which he believed helped people with disorders which had been caused by defence mechanisms and psychic conflict called psychoanalysis. This treatment is using a psychoanalyst every week for 4 hours until the person's behaviour has been diagnosed. In a health and social and social care setting this can be used to diagnose and understand a person's behaviour.(Stretch and Whitehouse 2007) (H) Using case study 2 describe how psychodynamic theory can be applied to anxiety The psychodynamic approach would say that John uses a state of denial to remember the car accident of his mother. When he has to travel in the car he unconsciously is thinking of his mother's accident and has the fear of the same thing happening to him to. Psychoanalysis would help John to work through his denial of the accident by having him to talk about his problems until he could cope with the thought. Sources Crittenden, M, Pope, S, Shackels, E, Thompson, A and Thompson, D (2005)Social Care (Book 1) UK Pearson Melamed at al (1983) found in Stretch et al (above) Stretch,B, and Whitehouse,M (2007)BTEC National Health and Social Care (Book 1) Essex Heinemann http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/introopcond.htm accessed on 30/10/10 http://www.suite101.com/content/systematic-desensitization-and-phobia-treatment-a141826 accessed on 30/10/10 ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 Andrew Taylor, Health and Social Care, Unit 8 Psychological Perspectives ...read more.

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