Unit 29-Applied Psychological Perspectives in Health and Social Care - P2, P3, P4 and M2

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Unit 29: Assignment 2

P2 – Explain the contribution of complementary psychological theories to the understanding of two specific behaviours

Case study – Addiction

Ben is a 22 year old and works as a photographer. He drinks a lot and goes to parties every single weekend with his friends. Ben has also started using heroin and became addicted to it while trying it out because of his friends. He grew up with his mum and had tough childhood as his mum is a single mum and also was addicted to alcohol.

He grew up being exposed to alcohol ever since he was a child and he thinks that drinking alcohol excessively is normal. However, Ben got to the point that he no longer can live without alcohol and heroin and it started to affect his job and his daily life.

Case study – Depression

Hannah is a 16 years old girl and she has just managed to finish her high school and is hoping to get into college. She has been experiencing symptoms of depression ever since the age of 13. It has affected her daily life and it had interfered with her studies as she found it hard to go to school and she isolated herself a lot. Hannah didn’t like herself and she constantly worried about her future and the world. She had low self-esteem and felt that she was worthless all the time and that feeling did not go away for months.

Her family didn’t know that it was depression until she was properly diagnosed by a psychiatrist. She now takes medication and it helps a lot with her negative and suicidal thoughts. Hannah has found out later on that her grandfather also suffered from depression.

The Social Learning Theory explanation for the cause of addiction could be due to parental addiction and peer pressure. This could be the reason why Ben has become addicted to drugs and alcohol. Ben was exposed to alcohol from an early age because his own mother was addicted to alcohol. Also Ben had become addicted to heroin due to his friends that he was socialising with and it also could be caused by peer pressure from his friends.

The Humanistic explanation for the cause of addiction is that low self-esteem and confidence. Ben may have felt that he had to fit in with his peer group and because of his low self-esteem he could not refuse to the peer pressure. If someone has a low-self-esteem, it can affect their judgement about themselves as well as this they are more likely to turn into alcohol and drugs to escape their problems.

These are complementary because both of these perspectives have similar explanation is to why someone is addicted to drugs or alcohol. For example, Social Learning theory and Humanistic explains that having low self-esteem and peer pressure could lead to someone becoming addicted to drugs and alcohol because they want to escape their problems.

The Cognitive explanation for the cause of depression is of their negative thoughts about their self, world and their future. This is an example of the negative triad and the Beck is the theorist for this.

This can be the cause of depression because Hannah had low self-esteem; she had constantly worried about her future and the world. This affected her daily life and having these negative thought caused her depression.

The Humanistic explanation for the cause of depression is low self-esteem and the needs of the person not being met. For example, Hannah had suffered from depression because she had a low self –esteem about herself and because of her depression she isolated herself from others. She had also constant fear and anxiety of going outside her house and as she thought that something bad will happen to her if she does go out.  

These are complementary because both the explanation of Cognitive and Humanistic approach of the cause of depression are similar. Both approaches have explained the causes of depression of Hannah may have been due to her low self-esteem about herself and her future and the world. Cognitive approach is about negative thoughts and whereas Humanistic approach is about negative feelings.

P3 – Explain the contribution of contrasting psychological theories to the understanding of two specific behaviours.

The Biological explanation for the cause of addiction is could be because of faulty genes that have been inherited from parents. For example, Ben may have inherited the genes from his mother and his alcohol and drug dependence could be due to the fact that it runs in the family. This explains why Ben may have become addicted to drugs and alcohol because his own mother was also an alcoholic.

Dopamine is a feel good hormone, which makes people feel high when they take thing such as drugs or alcohol. People may want to try drugs or alcohol again to feel good again due to the dopamine.

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The Psychodynamic explanation for the cause of addiction is early trauma that has been experienced by Ben. He may have also used defence mechanism such as escapism and denial as a way to escape from his trauma and problems of his life. The reason as to why Ben may have started using drugs and alcohol could be because he felt the need to use these in order to cope and find release from his problems.

These are contrasting because each perspective has a different explanation as to why Ben may have become addicted to alcohol and drugs. For example, the Biological ...

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