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History Notes on the American Civil War

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Introduction

APUSH Chapter 21 NOTES Bull Run Ends the "90 Day War" * Lincoln thought that a defeat of the Confederate forces at Bull Run (Manassas Junction, VA) would not only be successful, but quickly put an end to the South's secession from the Union WITHOUT damage to the economic and social system of the South -but he was wrong - Stonewall Jackson's regiment held * Victory was worse for the South b/c now the South was even more confident that they could win AND volunteers fell off b/c it didn't look as if they were needed * Defeat was better than victory for the North b/c it dispelled all notions that this was going to be a quick, easy war and caused the North to hunker down and gear up for the task at hand "Tardy George" McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign * George McClellan, the commander of the Army of the Potomac * Brilliant and experienced, "Little Mac" was also a perfectionist who learned the hard way that winning wars requires risk - He was overcautious and was arrogant to Lincoln * Lincoln had to issue orders to advance his army and thus began the Peninsula campaign in which the North lost as well * Result of this battle: Lincoln was willing to leave slavery alone where it already existed, but ...read more.

Middle

he would not (for fear of disunion) and Where he WOULD (confederate states) he could not. * Lincoln's immediate goal was not only to free the slaves, but also to strengthen the moral cause of the Union at home and abroad * This changed the nature of the war for now there was no chance of a negotiated settlement - it would be a fight to the finish - a clear winner and a clear loser * The political result - many Northerners felt Lincoln had gone too far - they fought to save the Union NOT to free slaves - desertions increased and many Democrats won Repub. seats even in Lincoln's home state of Illinois Blacks Battle Bondage * Lincoln took steps to enlist blacks in the armed forces - blacks were only enlisted in the Navy and as cooks, stewards and firemen) * By the end of the war, 180,000 blacks served in the Union army * In the South, blacks were not enlisted until the last month of the war but many were forced into war connected activities (building, farming, supplying) Lee's Last Lunge at Gettysburg * After Confederate victories at Fredericksburg (VA) and Chancellorsville (VA) {afterwards Stonewall Jackson was killed by friendly fire} - Lee followed up by invading North into Gettysburg, Pennsylvania * The Battle of Gettysburg was ...read more.

Conclusion

party was renamed Union Party containing Repubs and War Dems * Gen. McClellan was nominated by the Dems (regular and copperhead) * Lincoln wins * The South's hopes of a Lincoln defeat were shattered and desertions from the South increased sharply Grant Outlasts Lee * After brutal fighting between Grant and Lee's forces and an attempted peace settlement that failed, Grant captured Richmond and cornered Lee at Appomatox Courthouse in Va. - Lee surrendered to Grant in April 1865 The Martyrdom of Lincoln * On April 14, 1865 - five days after Lee's surrender at Ford's Theater in Washington - John Wilkes Booth - shot Lincoln in the head - Lincoln died the following morning * The south did not realize that Lincoln's death was the worst thing that could have happened for them in their defeated position - Lincoln's kindness and moderation could have acted as a shield between the South and the victors -the North is now even more bitter The Aftermath of the Nightmare * Over 600,000 men died * Many young men were lost to potential leadership and tens of thousands of babies were not fathered * The cost was approximately $15 billion * Nullification and secession were laid to rest - the greatest constitutional decision of the century was written in blood - the SUPREME TEST of American democracy and provided inspiration to democracies the world over * Slavery was ended * Nation politically united again ...read more.

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