• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In Hudson's ambitious study he identifies two major temporal consequences of the 1965 Voting Rights Act (VRA).

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

In Hudson's ambitious study he identifies two major temporal consequences of the 1965 Voting Rights Act (VRA):. First, the VRA was part of President Johnson's Great Society initiative. This was to increase the democratic participation of blacks by ensuring them equal access to voting booths in Southern states. Second, the racist intimidation in the form a literacy tests, constitutional interpretation tests and other obstacles imposed by whites. These factors prevented blacks from registering to vote in many Southern states. Reinforcement of the 15th amendment was, in Hudson's view, accomplished within the first five years of the VRA. As black registration in the South increased from 29% in 1965 to 56% in 1970. What followed on the heels of this victory, however, was nothing short of the accelerated unraveling of Martin Luther King's dream of racial assimilation. Today we live the nightmare of a society hemmed "along racial lines. Who is to blame? To a large extent, Hudson's offenders are civil rights leaders who have stretched the original intent of the VRA to encompass "affirmative action" measures such as race-based redistricting and bilingual ballots. ...read more.

Middle

For example, in the course of describing a 1988 law suit against the city of Dallas alleging that single-member districts should displace multi-member districts to increase minority voting power. Hudson portrays Roy Williams, one of the plaintiffs, in the following way: "Roy Williams, a six-foot-six, forty-seven-year-old black, was a self-employed Dallas businessman who had run for city council but had been defeated by a white candidate in an at-large race. He had been found guilty of driving while intoxicated three times, but later claimed to have had a spiritual awakening which led him into counseling others for substance abuse. He lived in a north Dallas condominium, ate at the French bakery near SMU, and toted a book bag filled with books on spiritualism and philosophy. Williams described himself as a spiritualist who meditated five hours a day, and claimed he had begun fasting to focus his attention on the trial." Rather than supporting Hudson's claim that civil rights leaders stretched the VRA beyond its original purposes, these kind of journalistic refrain, diminish from issues relevant to the legitimate question of whether or not the amendments and extensions to the 1965 VRA have gone too far. ...read more.

Conclusion

At the end of the book Hudson draws three bold conclusions: "The act lacked any measurable goals, thus allowing it to run far from of its original intent. The act's inclusion of language minorities turned it from an equal opportunity act to a social reallocation program. Rather than overcoming the long-term effects of race, the Act's 1982 results test maximized racial contention through inequitable voting schemes." This will serve as a useful resource for those desiring a run-down of what happened, when and how in the long and continuing battle over the voting rights of blacks, Native Americans and Hispanics. Hudson's expansion of the discussion beyond the black-white racial paradigm to include the complicating stories of Native Americans and Hispanics is salutary. Moreover, his effort to desegregate all three of these minority labels in the specific contexts of the communities he examines is an important reminder of the mitigating factors in politics. Overall I found that the work of Hudson was clear for the most part. He did well in providing several opinions' on this issue, although it is hard to determine exactly what they were. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Sources of Law section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Sources of Law essays

  1. To what extent do you think these aims have been (or will be) facilitated ...

    on which modern land law has been built, but after seventy-five years of use and development it was in need of gentrification. The systems of registration have proven to be the ideal way to facilitate transactions in real property and have developed since 192546.

  2. unit6 end of unit assignment civil litigation

    bill on an inter partes basis which will be lodged with the court for "assessment", which in litigation terms, means the scrutiny and approval of the Court. In the County Court the District Judge does this. The key point to emphasise to the client is that even if he is

  1. The Land Registration Act 2002 heralds major changes to the law and procedures regarding ...

    Here, they argued that it is actually the only way for them to force the true owner to appreciate their land especially whose owned a valuable one. It will be a waste to leave those land without any development and therefore they has the rights to take action if the

  2. Law case study

    Social workers have a duty of care to children and families most at need, and they have a responsibility to ensure that care is met through theses legislations. The law gives social work powers to help family life, these powers and duties are embedded within the framework of The Children (Scotland)

  1. How has the European Court of Human Rights contributed to the protection of children's ...

    Art. 6 - in contrast to Court's inconsistent and unfull protection of child's own right of liberty and private life, if children's rights do not potentially conflict with parents' rights, like protection of young offenders, the Court has interpreted them vigorously, contributing to improvement in member states' criminal justice systems.

  2. Citizenship and rights history

    Basic Rights and liberties * Freedom of movement * Freedom from arbitrary arrest or unjustified police searches * Freedom from conscience in matters of religion and politics * Freedom of expression * Freedom of association, including the right to protest peacefully * Social Freedoms - such as the right to

  1. Theory of attention

    If a habit is particularly strong, even partial matches are enough to trigger parent schemas. Loss of activation of a schema because of interference or decay of primary memory causes the desired intention to become lost, the behaviour however continues until it reaches a logical stop point. (Norman, DA, 1981)

  2. A number of views have been expressed that 'marriage' between two heterosexual couples is ...

    Furthermore, the ECHR held that there was no wide view of what marriage is and so each country is given a 'margin of appreciation' to decide how it understands marriage. Therefore Britain is entitled to limit marriage to deny transsexuals the right to marry opposite to their new sex14.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work